Last edited 09 Sep 2020

Types of building services


[edit] Introduction

Building services are the systems installed in buildings to make them comfortable, functional, efficient and safe.

Building services might include:

[edit] Building management systems

Building management systems are computer-based systems used to monitor and control building services. They help building managers understand how buildings are operating and allow them to control and adjust systems to optimise their performance.

As well as collating data and allowing ease of control, BMS can help; visualise data, automatically generate reports and create alarms and alerts when parameters are exceeded, failures occur, or with prognostic systems, when failures are likely to occur. They can also allow comparison between spaces, buildings and benchmark data.

For more information, see Building management systems (BMS).

[edit] Energy generation, distribution and supply

Energy is generated from several different sources and delivered through a transmission system by distribution network operators to end users. Types of energy include:

[edit] Escalators and lifts

A lift (or elevator) is a form of vertical transportation between building floors, levels or decks, commonly used in offices, public buildings and other types of multi-storey building. Lifts can be essential for providing vertical circulation, particularly in tall buildings, for wheelchair and other non-ambulant building users and for the vertical transportation of goods. Some lifts may also be used for firefighting and evacuation purposes.

For more information, see Lifts for buildings.

Escalators are mechanical devices used for transporting people vertically between different levels of buildings. Typically, they take the form of a moving staircase, consisting of a 'chain' of single-piece aluminium or stainless steel steps guided by a system of tracks in a continuous loop.

For more information, see Escalator.

[edit] Facade engineering

In its broadest sense, the term ‘façade’ can refer to any predominantly vertical face of a building envelope, such as an external wall. Façade engineering refers to designing a high-quality façade that enhances the energy efficiency and long-term sustainability of the building.

See: Facade for more information.

[edit] Fire safety, detection and protection

Buildings need to be designed to provide an acceptable level of fire safety and minimise the risks from heat and smoke. Building services can present a major ignition risk. Plant rooms, boiler houses and kitchens and so on should be sited where their threat is minimised.

Once a fire is detected (either by occupants or by automatic means), it is necessary to communicate the location of the fire to (other) occupants and to a control and response centre such as the fire and rescue service. Forms of detection include:

For more information, see Fire detection and alarm system.

There may also be other sorts of detectors, such as carbon monoxide detectors.

Sprinklers are designed to extinguish small fires or contain growing fires until the fire and rescue service arrives.

For more information, see Sprinklers.

[edit] Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

HVAC can be used in buildings to:

HVAC systems can be centralised in a building, or local to the space they are serving, or a combination of both (for example, local air handling units supplied by centrally-generated cooling). They may also be connected to a wider district heating or cooling network.

For more information, see HVAC.

[edit] Information and communications technology (ICT) networks

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) describes technologies and equipment that can be used to communicate as well as to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data.

For more information, see Information and communications technology.

[edit] Lighting

The term ‘lighting’ refers to equipment the primary purpose of which is to produce light. This is typically some form of lamp. However, lighting can also refer to the use of natural light to provide illumination.

For more information, see Lighting.

[edit] Lightning protection

A lightning protection system (LPS) can protect a structure from damage caused by being struck by lightning by providing a low-resistance path to ground for the lightning to follow and disperse. Examples include:

For more information, see Lightning protection system.

[edit] Refrigeration

Refrigeration can be used in buildings:

For more information see: Refrigeration.

[edit] Security and alarm systems

As well as the security of physical property it is also important to protect equipment, staff, visitors, and information. Security can also be an important consideration on construction sites.

The components of a commercial security system might include:

For more information see: Commercial security systems

[edit] Water, drainage and plumbing

Drainage is the removal of surface and sub-surface water. Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) are systems designed to efficiently manage the drainage of surface water in the urban environment.

Plumbing refers to any system that allows the movement of fluids, typically involving pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks and other apparatus.

Plumbing systems might be used for:

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