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Last edited 10 Dec 2020
Culvert, screen and outfall manual, (CIRIA C786) published by CIRIA in 2019, defines piping as: ‘Internal erosion of a water retaining structure, where erosion begins at the downstream face and regresses until a pipe-shaped discharge tunnel is formed in the soil mass or between the soil and a foundation. Failure occurs when the upstream end of the eroded tunnel reaches the upstream face.
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