National planning policy framework NPPF
The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) sets out government planning policy for England. It was published by the Department for Communities and Local Government (now the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG)) on 27 March 2012 and can be downloaded from the MHCLG website.
The NPPF followed a commitment made in the 2010 Coalition Agreement to “publish and present to Parliament a simple and consolidated national planning framework covering all forms of development and setting out national economic, environmental and social priorities”. The then Minister for Planning and Decentralisation, Greg Clark MP, suggested it introduced a simpler and more accessible approach to planning policy.
The framework replaces a wide range of previous planning policy statements and planning policy guidance (see Planning policy replaced by the NPPF). It is commonly cited as having reduced planning policy from over 1000 pages to around 50, but in fact, unless specifically revoked by the framework, existing policies remain effective.
In 2012, the coalition government commissioned the Taylor Report, a further review of the remaining planning policy guidance. A complete set of the legislation, policy and guidance that underpins planning in England can be found on the government's National Planning Practice Guidance website.
The NPPF dismantles the regional planning apparatus and introduces neighbourhood planning in order to create ‘ …. a framework within which local people and their accountable councils can produce their own distinctive local and neighbourhood plans, which reflect the needs and priorities of their communities.’
It defines three mutually dependent dimensions to sustainable development:
The framework sets out 12 core principles that should underpin plan making and decision taking which are presented in summary below.
Plan making and decision taking:
- Should be genuinely plan-led.
- Should be a creative exercise, not just one of scrutiny.
- Should be proactive in driving and supporting sustainable development.
- Should seek and secure high quality.
- Should take account of the diverse character of different areas.
- Should support the transition to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy.
- Should contribute to conserving and enhancing the natural environment and reducing pollution.
- Should encourage the use of brownfield land.
- Should encourage mixed-use development.
- Should conserve heritage.
- Should maximise the use of public transport, walking and cycling.
- Should support health, social and cultural wellbeing.
The framework then sets out detailed guidance under 13 subheadings that contribute to delivering sustainable development:
- Building a strong, competitive economy.
- Ensuring the vitality of town centres.
- Supporting a prosperous rural economy.
- Promoting sustainable transport.
- Supporting high quality communications infrastructure.
- Delivering a wide choice of high quality homes.
- Requiring good design.
- Promoting healthy communities.
- Protecting Green Belt land.
- Meeting the challenge of climate change, flooding and coastal change.
- Conserving and enhancing the natural environment.
- Conserving and enhancing the historic environment.
- Facilitating the sustainable use of minerals.
Local plans should be prepared by each local authority for its area. They should contribute to the achievement of sustainable development and set out over a 15-year time horizon ‘…the opportunities for development and clear policies on what will or will not be permitted and where…’
The framework proposes proactive engagement and collaboration with neighbourhoods, local organisations and businesses as well as co-operation with neighbouring authorities, public, voluntary and private sector organisations. It also proposes improving the efficiency of the application process through pre-application engagement by the applicant with the local authority, other consenting bodies and the local community. This should include discussing what information should be submitted as part of the application.
The framework sets out strategic priorities that should be included in local plans and makes clear that local plans will be examined by an independent inspector. Proposed developments that are in accordance with an up to date local plan should be approved without delay, whilst those that conflict with an up to date local plan should be refused (unless material considerations indicate otherwise).
This puts an emphasis on the local plan being up to date. The framework states that If a plan is absent, silent or out of date, permission should be granted, unless there are significant and demonstrable reasons not to grant permission.
Local authorities were given a 12-month transition period to ensure that existing plans conform with the framework. However, when the transition period came to an end in March 2013, just half of local authorities had adopted local plans in place and the Planning Inspectorate revealed that only 7% of those local plans complied with the requirements of the NPPF (ref. Planning Resource).
See Local plan for more information.
Parishes and neighbourhood forums are given the power to develop a neighbourhood plan for their neighbourhood. Neighbourhood plans must conform with the strategic policies in the local plan, but take precedence over non-strategic policies in the local plan where they are in conflict.
Parishes and neighbourhood forums are given the power to grant planning permission for developments through Neighbourhood Development Orders and Community Right to Build Orders. Neighbourhood Development Orders and Community Right to Build Orders require a local referendum. Where a planning application conflicts with a neighbourhood plan planning permission will not normally be granted.
See Neighbourhood planning for more information.
A number of significant concerns have been raised about the framework and its implementation:
- There may be unintended consequences resulting from such a significant change being made so quickly.
- There is ambiguity about the precise meaning of phrases such as ‘sustainability’.
- The framework says little about spatial planning or place making.
- It is questionable whether there are adequate resources available to implement the changes that the framework brings about.
- There is a lack of guidance for local communities.
- It is not clear how the framework tackles the lack of housing.
- It is not clear whether local plans will be able to retain control over development.
- The Taylor Report has come very close on the heels of the National Planning Policy Framework and there are concerns that the planning system could be thrown into disarray. Some campaigners have described the findings of the review as giving the go ahead for a bonfire of planning rules, creating a charter for development and putting the countryside at risk.
In April 2014, the all-party Commons Communities and Local Government Committee launched an inquiry into the operation of the NPPF. The inquiry found weaknesses in the NPPF and proposed a number of changes that could be made to strengthen it. See NPPF inquiry for more information.
In March 2015, a survey of residential developers and housing associations by accountancy and business advisory firm BDO found that 52% per cent felt the NPPF had made no difference, 19% per cent said it had inhibited the process and only 29% believed it had been helpful.
On 7 December 2015, the Department for Communities and Local Government launched a consultation seeking views on changes to the NPPF to support the delivery of new homes, including low cost homes for first time buyers. See Consultation on proposed changes to national planning policy for more information.
In April 2016, the Communities & Local Government (CLG) Committee published 'Department for Communities and Local Government’s consultation on national planning policy' in which they called for a comprehensive review of the NPPF before the end of the Parliament, pointing out that there had been, '...no robust, objective or evidence-based monitoring, evaluation or review' since it was first published in 2012.
In January 2018, it was announced that planning rules would be strengthened to protect music venues and neighbours. The Framework will be clarified to include a specific mention of the 'agent of change' principle, meaning that developers will be responsible for identifying and dealing with any sound planning if granted permission to build, rather than the onus continuing to rest with venues. This will be consulted on in Spring 2018.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Affordable housing.
- Brownfield land.
- Brownfield registers.
- Community right to bid.
- Community right to build.
- Consultation on proposed changes to national planning policy.
- Contaminated land.
- Detailed planning permission.
- How long does it take to get planning permission.
- How long does planning permission last.
- Killian Pretty Review.
- Local development order.
- Local plan.
- Localism Act.
- National Planning Practice Guidance.
- Neighbourhood development order.
- Neighbourhood planning.
- NPPF inquiry.
- Northern Ireland planning policy.
- Outline planning permission.
- Permission for mining or working of minerals.
- Planning permission.
- Planning policy replaced by the NPPF.
- Planning (Wales) Bill.
- Scottish planning policy.
- Statutory consultees.
- Supplementary planning guidance for London SPG.
- Sustainable development.
- Taylor Review.
- The London Plan.
- Welsh planning policy.
 External references
- See the National Planning Policy Framework in full.
- Planning Advisory Service.
- Nationally significant infrastructure projects are determined in accordance with the Planning Act 2008 and national policy statements for major infrastructure.
- Planning policy for traveller sites.
- Design Council CABE: Post NPPF design wayfinder.
- CPRE: Countryside Promises, Planning Realities. March 2013
- Planning: 7% of plans ruled in line with NPPF. 23 March 2013
- The legislation, policy and guidance that underpins planning in England can be found on the government's National Planning Practice Guidance website.
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