Ancient woodlands are areas that have been continuously wooded since at least 1600AD (1750 in Scotland). They are the primary woodlands with wildlife communities, structure and soils that have been modified the least. Ancient woodland contains a diverse number of species and is considered to be a historic part of our landscape which is irreplaceable.
There are two different types of ancient woodland:
- Ancient semi-natural woodland. This is woodland that has developed naturally.
- Plantations on ancient woodland. This is woodland planted on sites that previously contained ancient woodlands.
 Features and processes
Ancient woodland is typically composed of:
- Vegetation layers (canopy, understorey, field and ground).
- Irregular canopy structure.
- Veteran trees.
- Large amounts of dead wood (standing and fallen).
- Undisturbed soils.
- Sustained natural regeneration in gaps.
Dead and decaying wood is a major part of ancient woodlands supporting a range of specialist invertebrates, fungi, epiphytic lichens, mammals and birds.
Ancient woodland and its associated soil have been shaped over centuries by the interaction of natural disturbance, local climatic conditions and soil conditions, solar radiation, temperature, atmospheric moisture and nutrient cycling.
Local planning authorities are advised to conserve and enhance biodiversity. In particular in relation to ancient woodlands, harm should be avoided wherever possible and the National Planning Policy Framework (nppf) states:
‘...planning permission should be refused for developments resulting in the loss or deterioration of irreplaceable habitats, including ancient woodland...unless the need for, and benefits of, the development in that location clearly outweigh the loss’.
Developments can affect ancient woodland directly through the loss of trees or damage to the root systems and soils, or through pollution incidents or changes to the woodland’s drainage or water table.
 Locations of ancient woodland
The locations of ancient woodland sites over two hectares have been mapped and are available online from the MAGIC website and Forestry Commission. The databases are not considered to be complete and therefore it may be necessary to commission an ecologist to undertake an ecological survey in order to identify any ancient woodlands within development sites or close to them, that may be unrecorded.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- 11 things you didn't know about wood.
- Chain of custody.
- Definition of tree for planning purposes.
- Designated sites.
- Forest ownership.
- Forest Stewardship Council.
- National nature reserves.
- National parks.
- National Planning Policy Framework.
- Permission for felling or lopping a tree.
- Planning permission.
- Tree hazard survey.
- Tree preservation order.
- Trees in conservation areas.
 External references
Book now for Manchester 2017 to learn about heritage values and opportunities in transport infrastructure; IHBC’s Annual School 22nd – 24th June (Day School 23rd).
The Trust is currently accepting applications for fellowships across a range of research areas, including ‘environment, conservation and sustainable living’.
The Buildings at Risk Catalogue features over 100 decaying buildings from across the country in need of new owners or new uses.
Gaby Laing, Heritage Officer at the Scottish Civic Trust has put together a timeline of the Trust's history of the last fifty years to mark 50 years of the Scottish Civic Trust.
‘Better Connected’ have identified 36 local authorities as having the UK’s top council websites after performance surveys carried out from a customer perspective.
Press reports cite National Trust as rejecting request from chemicals firm Ineos to conduct surveys at Clumber Park testing for shale gas – a process that could lead to fracking.
A large Kiwi chalk figure in Wiltshire commemorating lives lost and sacrifices made by New Zealand troops in First World War is protected as a scheduled monument.
The Scheme which has been launched and is supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), to put culture and heritage at the heart of the development of local communities.