Ancient woodlands are areas that have been continuously wooded since at least 1600AD (1750 in Scotland). They are the primary woodlands with wildlife communities, structure and soils that have been modified the least. Ancient woodland contains a diverse number of species and is considered to be a historic part of our landscape which is irreplaceable.
There are two different types of ancient woodland:
- Ancient semi-natural woodland. This is woodland that has developed naturally.
- Plantations on ancient woodland. This is woodland planted on sites that previously contained ancient woodlands.
 Features and processes
Ancient woodland is typically composed of:
- Vegetation layers (canopy, understorey, field and ground).
- Irregular canopy structure.
- Veteran trees.
- Large amounts of dead wood (standing and fallen).
- Undisturbed soils.
- Sustained natural regeneration in gaps.
Dead and decaying wood is a major part of ancient woodlands supporting a range of specialist invertebrates, fungi, epiphytic lichens, mammals and birds.
Ancient woodland and its associated soil have been shaped over centuries by the interaction of natural disturbance, local climatic conditions and soil conditions, solar radiation, temperature, atmospheric moisture and nutrient cycling.
Local planning authorities are advised to conserve and enhance biodiversity. In particular in relation to ancient woodlands, harm should be avoided wherever possible and the National Planning Policy Framework (nppf) states:
‘...planning permission should be refused for developments resulting in the loss or deterioration of irreplaceable habitats, including ancient woodland...unless the need for, and benefits of, the development in that location clearly outweigh the loss’.
Developments can affect ancient woodland directly through the loss of trees or damage to the root systems and soils, or through pollution incidents or changes to the woodland’s drainage or water table.
 Locations of ancient woodland
The locations of ancient woodland sites over two hectares have been mapped and are available online from the MAGIC website and Forestry Commission. The databases are not considered to be complete and therefore it may be necessary to commission an ecologist to undertake an ecological survey in order to identify any ancient woodlands within development sites or close to them, that may be unrecorded.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- 11 things you didn't know about wood.
- Chain of custody.
- Definition of tree for planning purposes.
- Designated sites.
- Forest ownership.
- Forest Stewardship Council.
- National nature reserves.
- National parks.
- National Planning Policy Framework.
- Permission for felling or lopping a tree.
- Planning permission.
- Sustainably procuring tropical hardwood.
- Tree hazard survey.
- Tree preservation order.
- Trees in conservation areas.
 External references
Kate Kendall, lead on our Membership Application Training Events, offers her update on progress in supporting applications for conservation accreditation.
Historic England’s Conservation Principles, offers guidance on its approach to its own research and advice on designation, planning and conservation.
Scotland’s environment newly launched website reflects how technology, design and user needs are constantly evolving as has their website since its creation in 2009.
Institute of Conservation’s (Icon’s) next five-year strategy 2017-21 has been launched.
More than £1 Million of European funding for the restoration of Rothesay Pavilion will help create new jobs, according to Economy Secretary Keith Brown.
Admiralty Arch, designed by Sir Aston Webb (completed in 1912) as part of the Queen Victoria memorial scheme, is being transformed into a luxury hotel, apartments and club.
Radical plans to pedestrianise London’s Oxford Street have been unveiled in a move intended to address air quality concerns and lessen problems of overcrowding in London.
ICOMOS is pleased to share the ‘ICOMOS Guidance on Post Trauma Recovery and Reconstruction for World Heritage Cultural Properties document.’
The Report examines changing attitudes about the role of the public sector in an era of austerity with commentator noting: ‘The danger is if councils lose their moral purpose’.
Developer behind Belfast’s Titanic Quarter is in talks re a major role in the leisure, tourism and residential development planned for SW Scotland creating a possible 1,000 jobs.