Ancient woodlands are areas that have been continuously wooded since at least 1600 AD (1750 in Scotland). They are the primary woodlands with wildlife communities, structure and soils that have been modified the least. Ancient woodland contains a diverse number of species and is considered to be a historic part of our landscape which is irreplaceable.
There are two different types of ancient woodland:
- Ancient semi-natural woodland. This is woodland that has developed naturally.
- Plantations on ancient woodland. This is woodland planted on sites that previously contained ancient woodlands.
 Features and processes
Ancient woodland is typically composed of:
- Vegetation layers (canopy, understorey, field and ground).
- Irregular canopy structure.
- Veteran trees.
- Large amounts of dead wood (standing and fallen).
- Undisturbed soils.
- Sustained natural regeneration in gaps.
Ancient woodland and its associated soil have been shaped over centuries by the interaction of natural disturbance, local climatic conditions and soil conditions, solar radiation, temperature, atmospheric moisture and nutrient cycling.
Local planning authorities are advised to conserve and enhance biodiversity. In particular, in relation to ancient woodlands, harm should be avoided wherever possible and the National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) states:
‘...planning permission should be refused for developments resulting in the loss or deterioration of irreplaceable habitats, including ancient woodland...unless the need for, and benefits of, the development in that location clearly outweigh the loss’.
Developments can affect ancient woodland directly through the loss of trees or damage to the root systems and soils, or through pollution incidents or changes to the woodland’s drainage or water table.
In January 2019, the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) reported that just 2% of land in the UK is covered by ancient woodland and that they are threatened by the cumulative effects of inappropriate developments on their fringe as much as by permanent loss and damage.
Government guidance recommends that local authorities should refuse permission for developments that result in the loss of ancient woodland and ancient or veteran trees except in exceptional cases. However, ancient woodland is not a formal statutory designation, and the evidence used to designate a site as ancient woodland could still be open to challenge by developers and other parties.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- 11 things you didn't know about wood.
- Chain of custody.
- Definition of tree for planning purposes.
- Designated sites.
- Forest ownership.
- Forest Stewardship Council.
- National nature reserves.
- National parks.
- National Planning Policy Framework.
- Permission for felling or lopping a tree.
- Planning permission.
- Sustainably procuring tropical hardwood.
- Tree hazard survey.
- Tree preservation order.
- Trees in conservation areas.
- Types of land.
The first ‘Virtual School’ hosted by the IHBC was launched on 19 June with lead speakers covering pandemic-related topics shaping valued places over two sessions.
Plans are in place for a modified National Heritage Week for Ireland, which take into account ongoing restrictions on events and gatherings due to COVID-19.
Opened in 1901, and derelict for the last 30 years, the Grimsby Ice Factory is the earliest and largest known surviving ice factory in the world. It still contains an array of historic ice making equipment including four J&E Hall ammonia compressors installed in 1931.
A note on contractual obligations under the current COVID-19 pandemic has been issued by The Chartered Institute of Architectural Technologists(CIAT).
The Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) has called on the government to urgently issue planning guidance to prevent unnecessary delays to development from the pandemic.
The Heritage Fund has put together a list of heritage-inspired activities to be done from home.
Spring is a good time to stand back and consider any building repairs that are required over the next 12 months, notes the LPOC, and regular inspection and maintenance is the key to keeping homes in good repair, as per its accessible step-by-step guidance.
Derbyshire Fire and Rescue Service said “rapid and effective firefighting” had saved three quarters of the mill – which is now apartments.
Police have appealed for witnesses after thieves stole lead from the roof of All Saints Church in Halsham near Hedon during the coronavirus lockdown.
The regular newsletter showcases the IHBC’s own Continuing Professional Development (CPD) content as well as online opportunities from ‘IHBC Recognised CPD Providers’ and other conservation related training and events.
To make sure the public still has access to twelve of those famous works, #WrightVirtualVisits has been launched, which offers virtual tours of 12 iconic houses.
The Construction Industry Council’s (CIC’s) ‘CIC Coronavirus Digest – Issue 8’ surveys the latest government advice with updates from the construction industry.