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Last edited 30 Apr 2018
Types of beam
Beams are structural elements that resists loads applied laterally to their axis. They typically transfer loads imposed along their length to their end points where the loads are transferred to walls, columns, foundations, and so on.
Beams may be:
- Simply supported: that is, they are supported at both ends but are free to rotate.
- Fixed: Supported at both ends and fixed to resist rotation.
- Overhanging: overhanging their supports at one or both ends.
- Continuous: extending over more than two supports.
- Cantilevered: supported only at one end. See Cantilever for more information.
They may be statically determinate, that is, their reactions can be solved using equilibrium conditions, or they can be statically indeterminate.
A wide variety of cross section shapes are commonly available, including; square, rectangular, circular, I-shaped, T-shaped, H-shaped, C-shaped, tubular, and so on.
Beams may be straight, curved or tapered.
A universal beam (UB) is a beam with an 'I' or 'H'-shaped cross-section available in variety of standard sizes. It is a very efficient form for carrying bending and shear loads in the plane of the web.
The standard method for specifying the dimensions of a standard hot-rolled steel section includes using initials to designate the type of section. For example:
'UB 203 x 133 x 25' – A universal beam of nominal dimensions 203 mm deep, 133 mm wide, and weight 25 kg/m.
Hip beams are common in roofs, where they form the angled, inclined hip of the roof, supporting other load-bearing beams (or rafters) which branch away from them on either side and slope down to the eaves.
See Concrete-steel composite structures for more information
See Open web beam for more information.
See Lattice beam for more information.
See Beam bridges for more information.
Chilled beams are used to provide cooling to the internal spaces of buildings. Typically, chilled beams are distributed regularly across the ceiling of a space. They include chilled water pumped through copper cooling coils bonded to aluminium fins that cool air by convection.
See Chilled beam for more information.
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