Fire protection engineering
Fire engineering makes use of scientific and engineering principles to safeguard individuals, property and the environment from the destructive damage that can be caused by fire. This is achieved through the application of established rules and expert judgement together with an in-depth knowledge of the phenomena and effects of fire and the reaction and behaviour of people to fire.
Fire engineering covers a broad range of topics, and can encompass the following:
- Science: Ignition of fuel/air mixtures, chemistry of reactions, inhibition of combustion and toxicity, and so on.
- Technology: Use of electricity in flammable atmospheres, structural fire protection, fire detection and alarm systems design, sprinklers and other automatic fire fighting systems, and so on.
- Psychology and physiology: Emergency behaviour patterns, design of escape routes, and so on.
- Law: Drafting, implementation and enforcement of fire safety legislation, litigation arising from fires, and so on.
The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 provides the minimum fire safety standards for non-domestic premises. The Order designates a person, usually the employer or the owner as the “Responsible Person”. They are required to carry out certain fire safety duties, including ensuring that general fire precautions are satisfactory and conducting a fire risk assessment. If more than five persons are employed it has to be a written assessment. The Responsible Persons can have competent persons assisting them to perform their legal duties. See The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 for more information.
The Department of Communities and Local Government has produced a series of eleven guidance documents which provide advice on most types of premises where the duty to undertake a fire safety risk assessment under the Order applies.
In addition, The Building Regulations Part B: Fire Safety, addresses all precautionary measures necessary to provide safety from fires for building occupants, persons in the vicinity of buildings, and firefighters. Requirements and guidance covers means of escape in cases fire, fire detection and warning systems, the fire resistance of structural elements, fire separation, protection, compartmentation and isolation to prevent fire spread, control of flammable materials, and access and facilities for firefighting.
- Approved Document B - Fire Safety: Volume 1 - Dwellinghouses.
- Approved Document B - Fire Safety: Volume 2: Buildings other than dwellinghouses.
- The nature, characteristics and mechanisms of fire including how it begins, spreads and can be controlled.
- How fires can be detected, managed and extinguished.
- The probable behaviour of structures, materials, machines, apparatus, and processes in relation to the protection of life, property and the environment from fire.
- The interaction and integration of fire safety systems and other systems in buildings, industrial structures and similar facilities.
- Risk assessments to identify potential hazards, risks of fire and its effects.
- Minimising potential fire damage by effective design, layout and construction.
- Effective evaluation for the optimum preventive and protective measures necessary to limit the consequences of fire.
- The design, installation, maintenance and development of fire detection, fire suppression and fire control systems, along with fire-related communication systems and equipment.
- The direction and control of relevant equipment and people in the fire fighting and rescue operations strategies.
- Detailed post-fire investigation and analysis, evaluation and feedback.
The Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) is the professional body that represent fire engineers. The IFE registers suitably qualified IFE members as Chartered Engineers, Incorporated Engineers and Engineering Technicians. It is possible to find suitably qualified members though the IFE website.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Automatic fire detection and alarm systems, an introductory guide to components and systems BR 510.
- Building regulations.
- External fire spread, Supplementary guidance to BR 187 incorporating probabilistic and time-based approaches.
- Fire and rescue service.
- Fire authority.
- Fire compartment.
- Fire damper.
- Fire detection and alarm system.
- Fire Door Inspection Scheme.
- Fire marshal.
- Fire risk assessments and historic buildings.
- Fire safety design.
- Health and safety executive.
- Ionisation smoke alarm.
- Joint fire code.
- Means of escape.
- Multi-sensor alarm.
- Optical smoke alarm.
- Smoke detector.
- The causes of false fire alarms in buildings.
- The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005.
- The role of codes, standards and approvals in delivering fire safety.
- Timber framed buildings and fire.
- Visual alarm devices - their effectiveness in warning of fire.
 External references
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