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Last edited 10 Feb 2022
Water Bill, Glossary: water terms, published by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs in November 2013, defines a reservoir as: ‘A natural or artificial lake where water is collected and stored until needed. Reservoirs can be used for irrigation, recreation, providing water supply for municipal needs, hydroelectric power or controlling water flow.’
There are two basic types of reservoir:
- Open impounding reservoirs are for the catchment of 'crude' water.
- Service reservoirs are used in water distribution and should be enclosed for protection.
A similar type of structure, in terms of design and construction, liquid-retaining tanks which are generally used for industrial and public utility storage of liquid natural gas (LNG), oil products, and so on.
The principle of all open impounding reservoirs is the same, in that they consist of a dam across a valley to impound a natural stream of water. Typically they include overflow weirs, draw-off points and cut-off walling, or similar constructions, to intercept stray water which may flow beneath the dam. The water quality is improved by a treatment plant.
- The type (and temperature) of the liquid being stored.
- The size and shape of the tank.
- Whether it will be in or above the ground.
- The type of tank, i.e. open or closed, lined, unlined, and so on.
Open impounding reservoirs can be constructed from a range of materials, such as rock, earth, concrete or composites, depending on the reservoir size and earth type. An earthen embankment should have a watertight concrete face or a core of clay or concrete.
The geological conditions must be assessed, as this will determine the type of material to be used in constructing the tank or floor to prevent degradation, cracking, settlement or movement. Cracking can be controlled by the use of construction joints to accommodate movement. The type of cement used, its temperature during construction, and the wall dimensions will determine the spacing of the joints.
Rectangular tanks are commonly designed as simple slabs cantilevered from the floor. The corners restrain against deflection. Circular tanks can be designed as ring tension structures with ring reinforcement restricting the wall’s outward deflection, or as simple cantilever structures.
Service reservoirs require the construction of a roof structure. Where the roof is to be connected to the top of the walls, they should be able to resist against pressures caused by the expansion of the roof slab. Examples of such measures include:
- A layer of compressible material, such as foamed plastic, placed between the tank walls and the ground.
- A roof slab rested on sliding joints made of bituminous material, stainless steel, multi-layer rubber, and so on.
- Cantilevered from columns, allowing roof and walls to move freely.
- Laying a floor in alternate bays or ‘chess-board’ squares, with intervals of a few days in between; however, while this can eliminate a lot of the primary cooling shrinkage it will not control the hardening shrinkage.
- Allowing the slab to move freely on a sliding layer of synthetic material with adequate expansion joints.
- Restraining the slab on a rough concrete sub-floor, restricting shrinkage cracks. Continuity is provided at the joints by rebar.
The most common linings are metal-lined tanks with concrete walls and floors. Excavation is undertaken, a concrete tank cast and a metal lining fixed. The metal lining is normally nickel-steel or aluminium alloy, as these are capable of withstanding temperatures of below -160ºC (the temperature at which natural gas liquefies).
- Protective linings designed to resist corrosion, which can be made of glass, acid-resisting asphalt, wax, lead, and other soft metals.
- ‘Sacrificial’ linings that do not resist corrosive action but can be renewed at certain periods when the tank is emptied. This is usually a cheap form of cover such as cement mortar rendering.
- Plastic sheeting.
- Renderings which contain a waterproofing additive.
- Geomembranes such as high and low-density polyethylene, Butyl, EPDM, PVC, and synthetic rubbers.
- Basement excavation.
- Basement waterproofing.
- Coastal defences.
- Dove Stone Hydropower.
- Dual purpose reservoirs.
- Groundwater control in urban areas.
- Highway drainage.
- Land reclamation.
- River engineering.
- Sewer construction.
- Structural waterproofing consultant.
- Swimming pool construction.
- Types of water.
- Water engineering.
- Water transfers and interconnections.
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