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Last edited 16 Dec 2020
More than 2 million people die at work each year. Here is how to prevent it
To put this number in perspective, across the world 167,000 people died in armed conflicts in 2015, according to the latest edition of the IISS Armed Conflict Survey. In addition to this astounding number, each year 313 million accidents occur on the job resulting in extended absences from work.
The ILO estimates that the annual cost to the global economy from accidents and work-related diseases alone is a staggering $3 trillion. Moreover, a recent report suggests the world’s 3.2 billion workers are increasingly unwell, with the vast majority facing significant economic insecurity: 77% work in part-time, temporary, 'vulnerable' or unpaid jobs.
In addition to the social and human costs of health problems and fatalities, the cumulative economic burden caused by a lack of wellness at work is enormous for both businesses and the global economy. This is especially true when productivity losses are added to direct medical expenses.
A lack of wellness in the labour force is estimated to cost the global economy between 10 to 15% of global GDP. In the US alone, work-related injuries, illnesses and stress, and workers’ disengagement are estimated to cost the economy more than $2.2 trillion a year.
In 2013, Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman World Economic Forum, introduced the Forum’s Workplace Alliance Report. He pointed out the importance and economic implications of workplace wellness:
“Employers have a great responsibility to nurture employee resilience; there is strong evidence that a healthy workforce is vital to a country’s competitiveness, productivity and well-being. Over 50% of the working population spend the majority of their time at work, so the workplace provides a unique opportunity to raise awareness, as well as guide and incentivise individuals to develop healthier lifestyles. This has proven to have a multiplier effect, as workers integrate health and well-being into their families and communities.”
The causes of safety and health problems vary by sector. In the urban economy, for example, approximately one in six fatal workplace accidents reported globally takes place in the construction sector. This is mainly because of the intrinsically hazardous nature of this work, the challenging locations of construction sites, changing work environments and high rates of staff turnover. There are also health problems associated with building activities, such as musculo-skeletal disorders and exposure to hazardous substances, such as asbestos.
The construction industry has, however, come a long way in preventing accidents and health problems. Within the industrial construction environment, both contractors and owners have to commit the time, budget and management to focus on the well-being of the construction workforce.
Contractors are not only obliged to provide statistical proof of acceptable safety performance, but also programmes and processes that promote the safety of every worker in their care. This prerequisite for a safety culture has allowed the industry to change from injury management to injury prevention and the creation of 'zero incidents' goals.
“In many workplaces, safety is managed as a separate process, largely disconnected from the business imperatives of production and profit. However, health and safety is not a process in its own right, but an outcome of business decisions, strategy, culture and performance.”
 Creating an organisational leadership structure that fosters a culture passionate about health, safety and wellness
Ultimately, an organisation’s culture should ensure that its workers go home safe and healthy, while also satisfied from a good day’s work and proud of what they have achieved. To assure physical well-being, there can only be a zero-tolerance approach with respect to occupational health and safety issues.
The key is to set the right example: an organisation’s leadership has to demonstrate that no single job is worth a loss of life, injury or disease. They have to place key values – such as empathy, respect and ethical communication – at the centre of the organisation, while creating an environment of trust and integrity, perhaps via a clear, effective and enforced code of conduct.
 Establishing governance, engagement and dialogue for health, safety and wellness awareness
The right to social security is recognised as a human right reflected in the societal commitment to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
“Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realisation, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organisation and resources of each state, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.”
To ensure the well-being of an organisation’s labour force, it is paramount to address the social security challenges presented by an ageing society, as well as the emerging consequences of digital and technological progress, in a sustainable way.
Innovative approaches that promote inclusive growth, reduce income inequality, introduce alternative social security models (basic income, for example) will ensure that future employment will contribute substantially to the well-being of humanity.
 Well-being through advanced technology
While there are many possible implications of new technology for labour, with respect to safety and health it is possible to anticipate a number of opportunities. Advanced technologies could indeed increase worker wellness by removing work hazards and easing physical exertion.
Other examples of human-machine interfaces are: augmented and virtual operators; healthy operators, such as wearable health sensors and trackers; smart operators connected to intelligent personal assistants (IPA); collaborative operators, who train and work with collaborative robots; social operators, who tap into a business’s online networking services; as well as analytical operators, who use big data analytics.
As these advances in technology continue, there are already innovations that can be applied today, allowing workers to not only remove or protect themselves from hazardous circumstances, but also to potentially become more efficient. All construction industries have the opportunity to advance the use of technology and, as a result, make workforce engagement safer.
 Well-being through professional development
There is a mutual reinforcement between professional development, on the one side; and safety and health, on the other. First, it is important that safety and health is included as an integral part of training schemes throughout professional careers. At the same time, improved safety and health will help companies attract talent.
To be successful in attracting the right talent, offering flexibility and a sufficient work-life balance are essential. Bill Gates explains how businesses can benefit: “The competition to hire the best will increase in the years ahead. Companies that give extra flexibility to their workers will have the edge in this area.”
 Specific actions for ensuring mental and emotional well-being
We often underestimate the importance of psychological and emotional health in the workplace. Mental and emotional well-being is essential to overall health: positive mental health allows people to realise their full potential, cope with the stresses of life, work productively and make meaningful contributions to their communities.
The employer can proactively contribute by providing the necessary work-life balance, creating an empathetic organisational culture, offering stress-reduction programmes, implementing anti-harassment policies and supporting family leave, among many other things.
It’s worth it. After all, in the words of John Dineen, former President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Healthcare: “In today’s economic environment, facilitating the development of effective employer health strategies is a smart investment.”
Following the ILO’s Guideline 71 of the Internal Governance Documents System, the views expressed by an officer in an external publication are her/his and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Labour Organization.
- Mark Brown, Vice President, Construction & Fabrication, Fluor Corporation
- Michael Buehler, Head of Infrastructure & Urban Development, World Economic Forum
- Edmundo Werna, Head of Unit at the Sectoral Policies Department, International Labour Organisation (ILO)
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Environmental health.
- International Infrastructure Support System (IISS).
- Risk assessment.
- Thermal comfort and wellbeing.
- WELL Building Standard.
- Wellbeing and buildings.
- Wellbeing and creativity in workplace design - case studies.
- What we know about wellbeing.
- Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992.
--Future of Construction 15:24, 20 Jun 2017 (BST)
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