BREEAM Designing for durability and resilience
There is inherent value in knowing the long-term costs, in maintenance and in replacement, to avoid unnecessary expenditure. Robust materials used as building elements can reduce maintenance costs and future expenditures where known climatic erosion, weathering processes, and wear and tear are expected.
Quality in design and specification of durable materials add commercial value to a property. Hospitals and schools adopt durable and resilient materials by default for the wear and tear the building receives under high volume and constant use. Longer life-cycles of products will contribute positively to the LCA (life cycle assessment) balance.
 When to consider
Architects should consider the requirements and identify vulnerable areas as early in the design process as possible. Collaborate with the landscape designer and M&E engineers to allow for any potential measures affecting the lifetime of the materials.
At RIBA stage 3/4 - architects should consider future repairs and replacements, as well as their associated costs, when designing and specifying materials for a new building. Also consider the impact of climate change on the external materials. These considerations are expected to be included in the specifications.
 Step-by-step guidance
The design should be reviewed to identify any areas vulnerable to damage both internally and externally and where possible the risk should be removed. Where this is not possible, the risk should be reduced by specifying protection measures. Drawings should be marked up to identify the risk areas both internally and externally. This could include areas of the building at risk from damage from vehicle movement i.e. close to vehicular parking or manoeuvring; internal vehicular/trolley movement or areas of high pedestrian traffic such as main entrances, public areas and circulation routes.
- Bollards/barriers/raised kerbs to delivery and vehicle drop-off areas.
- Robust external wall construction, up to 2m high.
- Corridor walls specified to Severe Duty (SD) as per BS 5234-2 and for Healthcare Buildings - HTM 56.
- Protection rails to walls of corridors where trolley movement is likely.
- Kickplates/impact protection (from trolleys etc) on doors.
- Hard-wearing and easily washable floor finishes in heavily used and circulation areas (i.e. main entrances, corridors, public areas etc).
- Designing out the risk without the need for additional materials specification to protect vulnerable areas.
Vehicular impact protection must be positioned at an adequate distance from the building to protect the fabric from impact from any vehicle with a measurable overhang of the body from the wheel track, in particular in any goods delivery areas.
The process to assess criteria 2 is:
- Identify from the list of ‘applicable building elements’ under Table 50 the elements that are appropriate to the building being assessed.
- Establish from the ‘environmental factors’ list those factors that are likely to cause material degradation effects in the identified applicable building elements.
- Confirm the design and specification measures in place to limit these degradation effects.
- The assessor should use their professional judgement in determining whether the design team have adequately demonstrated that they have designed and specified materials and/or measures which will be effective in preventing unnecessary deterioration, so reducing frequent replacements, repairs and maintenance through the life cycle of the building.
- At post construction stage, where the design and specification measures installed differ from those proposed at the design stage, the assessor must ensure that these measures still meet the aims of the criterion as detailed in point 4 above.
 Protecting exposed parts of the building from material degradation
- Foundations, substructure, lowest floor, retaining walls.
- External walls.
- Glazing – Windows/skylights.
- External doors.
- Hard landscaping.
- Solar radiation.
- Temperature variation.
- Precipitation – rain and snow.
- Extreme weather conditions – high wind speeds, flooding, driving rain, snow.
- Pests, insects.
- Air contaminants.
- Ground contaminants.
- Dimensional change e.g. swelling or shrinkage.
- Fading / discolouration.
- Salt crystallisation.
A suggested format for evidence is a table with the following headings:
|Applicable Building Elements||Environmental Factors||Possible Degradation Effects||Measures to Minimise Effects|
 For shell only or shell and core assessments
Where vulnerable elements identified are internal and do not form part of the shell and core developer’s remit, i.e. they are within speculative areas and compliance is subject to the tenant’s/future occupier’s fit-out specification, these areas can be excluded from assessment.
 Questions to ask while seeking compliance
- Are there any specific areas in the building which you would classify as vulnerable?
- Are there any specific procedures and specific materials required for the building type?
- Have you considered specific measures to increase the resilience and durability of materials in these areas?
- What measures are considered?
- Table - 50 in BREEAM New Construction 2014 manual - Applicable building elements, environmental factors and material degradation effects
 Typical evidence
- Marked up plans/drawings identifying vulnerable areas of the building internally and externally.
- Design drawings/specifications showing protection measures incorporated to prevent damage.
- Schedule identifying measures to protect from material degradation listing applicable building elements, applicable environmental factors, material degradation effects and any measures specified to mitigate the possible degradation.
 Applicable schemes
The guidelines collated in this ISD aim to support sustainable best practice in the topic described. This issue may apply in multiple BREEAM schemes covering different stages in the life of a building, different building types and different year versions. Some content may be generic but scheme nuances should also be taken into account. Refer to the comments below and related articles to this one to understand these nuances. See this document for further guidelines.
--BREEAM Professionals Workshop 15:53, 21 Feb 2018 (BST)
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Approved document 7.
- BREEAM Adaptation to climate change.
- BREEAM Material efficiency.
- Building Back Better: Resilience.
- Building flood resilience.
- Building Research Establishment.
- Designing resilient cities: a guide to good practice (EP 103).
- Engineering resilience to human threats.
- Future proofing construction.
- Property flood resilience.
- Two steps towards a more resilient world.
Issue support documents
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Issue support documents are written for named BREEAM Issues or sub-issues. More info. (ac) = awaiting content.
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- BREEAM Sustainability champion
- BREEAM Environmental management
- BREEAM Considerate construction
- BREEAM Monitoring of construction site impacts
- BREEAM Aftercare support
- BREEAM Seasonal commissioning
- BREEAM Testing and inspecting building fabric
- BREEAM Life cycle cost and service life planning
- BREEAM Stakeholder consultation (ac)
- BREEAM Commissioning (ac)
- BREEAM Handover (ac)
- BREEAM Inclusive and accessible design (ac)
- BREEAM Post occupancy evaluation
 Health and Wellbeing
- BREEAM Visual comfort Daylighting (partly ac)
- BREEAM Visual comfort View out
- BREEAM Visual comfort Glare control
- BREEAM Indoor air quality plan
- BREEAM Indoor air quality Ventilation
- BREEAM Thermal comfort
- BREEAM Internal and external lighting (ac)
- BREEAM Indoor pollutants VOCs (ac)
- BREEAM Potential for natural ventilation (ac)
- BREEAM Safe containment in laboratories (ac)
- BREEAM Acoustic performance
- BREEAM Safety and security (ac)
- BREEAM Reduction of energy use and carbon emissions
- BREEAM Energy monitoring
- BREEAM External lighting
- BREEAM Low carbon design
- BREEAM Passive design
- BREEAM Free cooling
- BREEAM LZC technologies
- BREEAM Energy efficient cold storage (partly ac)
- BREEAM Energy efficient transportation systems
- BREEAM Energy efficient laboratory systems
- BREEAM Energy efficient equipment (partly ac)
- BREEAM Drying space
- BREEAM Transport assessment and travel plan
- BREEAM Public transport accessibility
- BREEAM Sustainable transport measures
- BREEAM Proximity to amenities
- BREEAM Cyclist facilities
- BREEAM Alternative modes of transport (ac)
- BREEAM Maximum car parking capacity
- BREEAM Travel plan
- BREEAM Home office (ac)
- BREEAM Water consumption
- BREEAM Water efficient equipment
- BREEAM Water monitoring
- BREEAM Water leak detection (ac)
- BREEAM Hard landscaping and boundary protection
- BREEAM Responsible sourcing of materials
- BREEAM Insulation
- BREEAM Designing for durability and resilience
- BREEAM Life cycle impacts
- BREEAM Material efficiency (ac)
- BREEAM Construction waste management
- BREEAM Recycled aggregates
- BREEAM Speculative floor & ceiling finishes
- BREEAM Adaptation to climate change
- BREEAM Operational waste
- BREEAM Functional adaptability (ac)
 Land Use and Ecology
- BREEAM Site Selection
- BREEAM Ecological value of site
- BREEAM Protection of ecological features
- BREEAM Minimising impact on existing site ecology
- BREEAM Enhancing site ecology
- BREEAM Long term impact on biodiversity (ac)
- BREEAM Impact of refrigerants
- BREEAM NOx emissions
- BREEAM Flood risk management (ac)
- BREEAM Surface water run-off (ac)
- BREEAM Reduction of night time light pollution (partly ac)
- BREEAM Reduction of noise pollution
Once an ISD has been initially created the '(ac)' marker can be removed
This particular index is based around the structure of the New Construction and RFO schemes.