Glossary of paving terms
Asphalt (also asphalt concrete): 1 A street paving material made of asphalt (bitumen) and mineral aggregate (such as sand or stone-dust). The material makes up the large majority of all urban paved surfaces. 2 The black, viscous form of petroleum, found in natural deposits or made by refining, used in making the paving material. Compare tarmac.
Asphalt chip sealing: Rolling a layer of aggregate into a base of asphalt emulsion binder to improve tyre grip and road wear, or alter the appearance or reflectivity. Using light-coloured aggregate can increase reflectance and reduce warming, or a local stone can help the road fit in better with its surroundings.
Causey: 1 n. (mainly Scotland and the north of England) A street or pavement, usually one paved with cobbles rather than flags. 2 A cobble. 3 n. A causeway. 4 v. To pave, particularly down the centre of the street. Example: ‘By [the] mid 1700s most of the streets in the Old Town were setted or “causeyed” (applied to where they were paved down the middle with drains on either side)’ (from Edinburgh Standards for Streets, 2006). The word comes from causeway. See also crown o’ the causey.
Causey edge (Yorkshire): A kerb.
Crib-stane (Scots): A kerbstone.
Crown o’ the causey (Scots): The middle of the street. The 2006 guide Edinburgh Standards for Streets writes that in Edinburgh’s Old Town ‘crowns of the causeway (a ridge or crown along the centre of a road) was [sic] removed and levelled along with other subsequent improvements in the late 1700s’. See causey.
Cube: A square sett.
Dropped kerb/curb (UK/US): A short stretch of kerb that has been lowered to allow vehicles to drive across the pavement and park in driveways which used to be front gardens; a section of kerb lowered to let people in wheelchairs or with buggies to cross the road.
Horonized paving (Scotland): A paved surface consisting of irregular fragments of stone (usually by-products of the manufacture of setts or cobbles) set in cement or another binder. Such paving is often used to cover small, irregular areas and on slopes, where the rough surface provides good grip.
Kerb (also curb): The edge of a pavement, often marked by a kerbstone (curbstone); a line of kerbstones where footway and carriageway meet. From the Latin curvus meaning bent, by way of the French courbe.
Knucklebone pavement: One surfaced with the knuckle bones of animals.
Macadam: 1 (also stone macadam) A type of road construction with a smooth, hard surface, in which layers of compacted, crushed stone are bound with stone dust. It was pioneered by the engineer and road-builder John McAdam (1756–1836). 2 (also bitumen macadam) A similar type of road construction but with the addition of tar as a binder. See also bitmac and tarmac.
Metalled road: One surfaced in road metal, in a late eighteenth century sense of the word metal, referring to the crushed rock that formed part of the system of building a sealed and waterproof road surface pioneered by the engineer John McAdam. Before that, metal referred to anything useful that had been extracted from the ground. The word comes from Latin metallum, a mine or quarry.
Pavement: 1 (UK) The raised surface for pedestrians beside a street or road. The US equivalent is sidewalk, though pavement is used in some parts of the southern states. 2 (US, and UK highway engineers) The structure of a road, including its surface and underlying foundations. The general UK equivalent is roadway. 3 A paved surface. 4 An alley. From the Latin pavire, to beat hard.
Paving Commission: One of the local boards of improvement set up in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the UK by a locally specific Act of Parliament to pave, repair, light and clean streets and other public spaces, levying a rate on householders to pay for this. Their duties were later taken over by local authorities.
Pebble: 1 A small stone, rounded by the action of water, ice or sand, as used in pebble paving. 2 (obsolete) A stone. Leases signed in the 1770s for the construction of houses in Bedford Square, London, specified that the carriageway in front of the houses should be paved with ‘Scotch Granite or Square Jersey Pebbles’.
Plainstones (Old Scots): A pavement.
Scoria block: A particularly durable and robust block, used for building and paving, made (from the eighteenth century onwards) from scoria (the residue of metal-smelting processes). Scoria is Ancient Greek for excrement.
Stoneway (also stone tramway): A paved surface consisting of two parallel tracks of stone for a vehicle’s wheels to run on, and setts between the slabs to provide a good grip for its horse’s hooves. They were used in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Tarmac: 1 A generic name for asphalt surfaces. 2 A patented type of road-surfacing material composed mainly of compacted tar and aggregate. The word is a shortening of tarmacadam, a word combining tar- with the name of the engineer and road-builder John McAdam (1756–1836), who invented a process for building roads with a smooth, hard surface (macadam).
Wood-block paving: Wooden blocks (usually treated with bitumen or creosote) used for paving streets as a cheaper and quieter (though less durable) alternative to stone and asphalt. See also blockhead, boyington paving and cassie.
Togher (Ireland): A roadway or causeway. From the Irish word tóchar.
Wheeler: 1 A double track of large, flat stones (often granite) laid in an otherwise cobbled or setted street or other space, providing a smooth surface for the wheels of vehicles. See stoneway. 2 A cyclist.
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