Last edited 01 Feb 2021

The benefits of urban trees

Urban Trees.jpg


[edit] Introduction

Trees and urban green infrastructure are a core aesthetic and environmental component of the urban landscape. Unfortunately, until recently the common attitude to urban trees was not to place them in the centre of initial planning, but rather to treat them as an optional addition to a completed project.

Attitudes are changing now. Good urban planning and placemaking tend to take advantage of the existing green infrastructure and provide space and place for planting more trees and greenery.

The importance of green urban forests is difficult to overestimate: it influences all major areas of residents' wellbeing from physical health, to the level of a community's engagement and mental wellbeing. The potential benefits must be estimated at the initial phase of planning, and green infrastructure should be central to any development.

[edit] Environmental benefits

[edit] Regulating urban climate

Trees play a vital role in the temperature regulation of cities. Research undertaken by the UK Forestry Commission shows that trees and green infrastructure can reduce the urban heat island effect (UHI), and can cool air by between 2ºC and 8ºC. This can be life saving. According to the same research, during hot summers the UHI effect is the cause of heat-related stress, which accounts for around 1,100 premature deaths a year in the UK.

Urban trees are an effective tool in cooling down cities and towns, fulfilling three important functions:

[edit] Community benefits

Trees and green spaces are also an essential element of placemaking, they are central to creating public realms that draw people in and bring communities together.

A 2001 study [1] of a Chicago public housing development showed a dramatic reduction in crime in apartment buildings surrounded by trees and greenery compared to the nearby identical apartment block surrounded by barren land. The study revealed a significant 48% reduction in property crime and a 56% reduction in violent crime.

Green infrastructure reduces crime in several ways:

[edit] Economic benefits

Tree-lined areas and retail districts with enhanced green infrastructure create an attractive environment that encourages shoppers to linger longer.

Trees also make a significant contribution to the value of property in a neighbourhood.

[edit] Urban tree canopy: taking stock for better urban planning

In the UK, levels of urban deforestation have been increasing for the last 30 years.

In an attempt to reverse this trend, the urban canopy initiative (UK UCI) was launched in 2008. The initiative set the following objectives:

Taking stock of the existing urban canopy is vital in identifying the ways to maintain and support urban forests. This type of survey answers the main questions that form the basis of urban tree policy:

[edit] Urban trees survey in Wales

The 'Tree Cover in Welsh Towns and Cities study' was designed to help address the lack of knowledge and accountability as far as Wales' urban trees are concerned. The study also provided a valuable insight into how trees contribute to the quality of those most used places in towns and cities.

This has paved a way to understanding what green resources Welsh cities and towns already have. This invaluable information provides planners and urban designers with a context in which they can plan redevelopment projects and new built areas.

[edit] Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki

[edit] External references

1. Kuo, F.E., & Sullivan, W.C. (2001). “Environment and crime in the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime?” Environment and Behavior, 33(3), 343-367.

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