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Last edited 22 Mar 2022
There are instances when the extraction of timber is not considered deforestation. This occurs in places where it is required to replant or to permit natural regeneration in harvested areas - thus, the land is not repurposed.
 Human methods of deforestation
- Resource extraction such as mining, logging for lumber, charcoal, building materials and paper production.
- Agricultural development for conversion into plantations and other types of farmland.
- Urbanisation for the creation of housing, roads and other infrastructure to support community development.
 Natural forest clearances
Natural causes are sometimes associated with temporary forest clearances. These causes are not considered forms of deforestation, since the areas are generally allowed to return to their natural (pre clearance) state.
Natural clearance occurrences may include:
- Extreme weather such as flooding or drought.
- Fire brought on by lightning or extremely dry conditions.
- Parasites and other types of disease.
While natural forms of forest clearance may be unintentional, they are sometimes associated with conditions brought about by human activity and climate change. These actions might make it more difficult for the forest to return to its original state.
 Consequences of deforestation
Deforestation results in serious negative impacts for forest biodiversity. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) estimated that 13 million hectares of forest are lost each year to deforestation, which in itself has a significant impact on species.
Other consequences of deforestation are associated with the decrease in trees available to absorb carbon dioxide. This may include increases in greenhouse gas emission in the air and levels of acidity in oceans, resulting in possible changes to ecosystems and the climate.
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