Last edited 03 Jul 2019

Land use

Contents

[edit] Introduction

Land use is the exploitation of land and its resources, that is, the managing and modifying of natural or urban environments for the benefit of humans. This benefit may accrue to individuals, companies, local and regional authorities and nation states. The way land is used varies considerably across the world due to geographical, geological, climatic, cultural and economic reasons.

Land is a scare commodity so its use is usually dictated by economics, achieving maximum efficiency, regardless of whether it is to be used for agricultural, residential, recreational, industrial or urban purposes. However, land use is also dictated by the biological and physical nature of the land in question: good soil can lead to agricultural use, whereas elevated land can be used for settlements due to the lower risk of flooding. Major changes in land-use patterns have occurred over the centuries due to the effect of food production, power availability, transportation, popultion growth, climate change, resource depletion, communication technologies and so on.

Around 10,000 years ago, humans started to modify the landscape extensively with the domestication of plants and animals. The large-scale clearing of land also occurred to create settlements and agriculture. As populations grew, settlements became larger with a network of structures built, altering the land.

Since 1750, the major effect of land use has been deforestation of temperate regions, More recently, this has been accompanied by soil erosion, soil degradation, salinisation and desertification.

Over the past half century, the dramatic increase in urban populations globally has resulted in urban sprawl, where cities consume agricultural and open space around them. This phenomenon has emphasised the value of prioritising land use to limit urban growth (such as by the creation of green belts). Furthermore, zoning regulations provide a controlled and regulated use of land for the benefit of society.

[edit] Use classes

In the UK, the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 categorises land use into categories known as ‘use classes’. For England, these are generalised very broadly below but it is up to local planning authorities to determine which category a particular use falls into. The use classes are:

[edit] Part A

[edit] Part B

  • B1 Businessoffices (other than those that fall within A2), research and development of products and processes, light industry appropriate in a residential area;
  • B2 General industrial – use for industrial process other than one falling within class B1;
  • B3-B7 Special industrial uses;
  • B8 Storage or distribution – includes open air storage.

[edit] Part C

[edit] Part D

  • D1 Non-residential institutions – clinics, health centres, crèches, day nurseries, day centres, schools, art galleries;
  • D2 Assembly and leisure - cinemas, music and concert halls, bingo and dance halls (but not night clubs), swimming baths, skating rinks, gymnasiums etc.

[edit] Sui Generis

Planning permission is usually required to change from one use class to another e.g a change from offices (B1) to dwellings (C3).

[edit] Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki

[edit] External links

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