Last edited 22 Apr 2021

Main author

ICPMA Institute / association Website

Re-starting construction in a COVID-19 environment



On 27th March 2020, the Irish Government closed the construction industry as part of its measures to control the spread of the Coronavirus. This virus was spreading across the world, infecting millions of people and taking the lives of hundreds of thousands. The measures were to remain in place until 18 May 2020, when the industry would begin the process of re-opening.

Ireland's social distancing measures

Different countries took different approaches to construction during their virus containment phase, many allowing work to continue but with restrictions in place to prevent spread of the virus on-site. As Ireland approached the restart, there was a requirement for consistency across the sites in respect of the appropriate procedures to put in place. Some essential work had continued – that which was deemed essential to stopping the spread of COVID-19 – and lessons learned from this work, in addition to guidance documents from trade and professional bodies, provided a framework for the required procedures for the construction restart.

To slow the virus, the two-metre social distancing measures, regular hand washing and surface cleaning/disinfecting had shown effectiveness in slowing the spread of the virus in every country. The restart to construction would set out procedures that would instil this activity into the workplace. With that in mind, the following measures became common on construction sites all over the world to maintain two-metre distance between individuals:

Infection control

Extra hand washing facilities would be provided at the entrance to the site, and further hand washing stations would be provided at several locations throughout the site. A constant cleaning/disinfecting regime would be introduced to ensure that infection transmission risk would be reduced to a level that was as low as possible. Individuals would be appointed as COVID-19 Compliance Officers to ensure that the measures would be followed by everyone on site.

To prevent infection on-site, only those who were actually required to carry out work on the sites were allowed to be there. Different countries had slightly different pre-site procedures but most opted for the requirement for the workers to complete a declaration confirming that:

  • They had none of the common symptoms of the virus.
  • They had not been in contact with anyone with the symptoms.
  • They had not been out of the country in the last 14 days.

In different jurisdictions and depending on the technology available on-site, this would either be an online or paper-based declaration. On presentation of this declaration, the body temperature readings of the workers would be taken prior to entry to the site and anyone displaying an elevated temperature would not be allowed on-site.

Various pre-return requirements were introduced, such as the Irish Construction Industry Federation C-19 Induction, the issuance of the COVID-19 guidelines from Build UK and the publication of the OSHA COVID-19 Guidance for the Construction Workforce in the US.

Acceptable safety levels

Essentially, this guidance is constant across different countries. It is worth noting however that the guidance being given is not a new set of regulations. It is an interpretation of the information that is available that will lead to an acceptable standard of safety in a COVID-19 environment. This will be an important point to consider in the contractual and financial ramifications of COVID-19 on construction operations.

On returning to work, each worker is required to undergo a site-specific COVID-19 induction, giving details of the measures specific to that site in respect of the logistics onsite, the reporting protocols, the requirements for travelling to/from work and what to do if a suspected case of the virus was found on-site. These inductions are to be reinforced with regular toolbox talks, clarifying updates in protocols and site specific measures as the construction work progresses.

The use of masks is always a requirement in a dusty environment, but as a COVID-19 prevention measure their use is looked at differently in different countries. In the Far East, they are encouraged, but in Europe there is no clear advice to use them, whilst in the US, there is mixed opinion on their value in a construction environment (a requirement in New Jersey and Washington state, a recommendation in a further handful of states and not mentioned at all elsewhere).

Importance of signage

Common to all jurisdictions is the increased use of signage, clarifying the new protocols and giving clear direction on the procedures to be followed.

Depending on the size of the project, some extra measures are being introduced such as:

Labour concerns

There are also considerations where the contractor uses migrant labour. This is generally not an issue in Northern Europe, but in the Far East, strict protocols are in place to keep COVID-19 out of such communities, to avoid a repeat of the outbreak in Singapore in several dormitories where such workers were housed.

As work recommences, the evidence coming from various countries that worked through the crisis is that productivity can recover to approximately 80% of pre-COVID levels. The focus is now turning to the cost and contractual issues that have arisen in this crisis.

As yet, there is no clear, consistent picture of how these issues will resolved. What will be interesting will be the effect that these measures will have on tender prices and how construction will change into the future.

This view from Ireland comes from Dr Louis Gunnigan from the Technological University of Dublin.


Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki

Designing Buildings Anywhere

Get the Firefox add-on to access 20,000 definitions direct from any website

Find out more Accept cookies and
don't show me this again