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Last edited 30 Jun 2022
A refrigerant fluid is run through the lower temperature source. The fluid ‘absorbs’ heat and boils, even at temperatures below 0°C (although the coefficient of performance (COP) decreases with lower temperature). The resulting gas is then compressed, which further increases its temperature. The gas is passed into heat exchanger coils, where it condenses, releasing its latent heat. The process then repeats.
This is the same process that is used to extract heat from a fridge.
Heat pumps can be used domestically or commercially to provide hot water, space heating (either by providing hot water for under-floor heating or radiators, or supplying hot air) or other applications such as heating swimming pools.
In the UK, heat pumps are most commonly air-source or ground-source heat pumps. However, the temperature of ground water sources in the UK tends to be fairly constant for most of the year, at between 8 and 12°C, and so water source heat pumps can be more efficient.
- Air source heat pumps absorb heat from the outside air. Air-to-water systems provide hot water for direct use or to supply radiators or underfloor heating systems. Air-to-air systems provide hot air, either directly into an internal space, or to be distributed by fans throughout a building. See Air source heat pumps for more information.
- Ground source heat pumps use lengths of plastic pipe buried in the ground, either in a borehole or a horizontal trench. See Air source heat pumps for more information.
- Water source heat pumps absorb heat from a suitable local water source, such as a lake, river, well, borehole and so on. They can be ‘open-loop’ or ‘closed-loop’ systems. See Air source heat pumps for more information.
Refrigeration units also use heat pumps, as do chiller units that provide chilled water (CHW) for space cooling, for example in air handling units, fan coil units, chilled beams and so on. In this case, the system is reversed, absorbing heat from the interior and releasing it to the outside.
Heat pumps generally use electricity to power the compressor. However, in absorption heat pumps, the refrigerant (typically ammonia) is absorbed into water, then is released again by being heated. The heat source is generally gas fuelled (Gas Absorption Heat Pumps GAHP) but other heat sources can be used, such as solar heated water.
For more infomration about different types see: Types of heat pump.
NB The Energy White Paper, Powering our Net Zero Future (CP 337), published in December 2020 by HM Government, defines a heat pump as: ‘A device that extracts heat from the air, ground or water and concentrates it to a higher temperature and delivers it elsewhere, for example to a central heating system. It can replace traditional fossil fuel heating, such as a gas or oil boiler. Heat pump systems are designed to extract a greater amount of heat energy from the surrounding environment than the energy they consume in doing so, therefore they can act as a more efficient source of heat than a conventional electric heater, producing two to three times (or more for very efficient systems) as much heat output as they consume in electricity input.’
They are most effective where the power consumed by the pump is low, and this tends to be for use in modern buildings that are well sealed and insulated so that the heating requirement is minimal. It also requires that the system is appropriately sized for the heat demand that needs to be serviced.
- Absorption heat pump.
- A decade for heat pumps.
- Air source heat pumps.
- Amber warnings raise building overheating concern.
- BSRIA domestic hot water heat pumps testing.
- BSRIA global heat pump market 2019.
- COVID-19 and the global heat pump market.
- Domestic heat pumps and the electricity supply system.
- Dynamic thermal modelling of closed loop geothermal heat pump systems.
- Earth-to-air heat exchangers.
- Exhaust air heat pump.
- Geothermal pile foundations.
- Ground energy options.
- Ground source heat pumps.
- Heat exchanger.
- Heat pump COP & EER and central plant SCOP in ambient loops.
- Heat pumps and heat waves: How overheating complicates ending gas in the UK.
- Heat recovery.
- Hybrid heat pump electric panel heating.
- Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery.
- Renewable energy sources: how they work and what they deliver: Part 3: Electrically driven heat pumps DG 532 3.
- Residential heat pump installations: the role of vocational education and training.
- Reversible heat pumps to provide comfort cooling.
- Room-based heat pumps.
- Smoothing the path to net zero.
- Solar-assisted heat pump.
- Tempering heating.
- The role of onsite renewables in tackling climate change.
- Types of heat pump.
- Underfloor heating.
- Water source heat pumps.
- What are the different types of heat pumps and where would you use them?
- What is diversity in HVAC systems?
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