- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 16 Jul 2018
Blocks are constructed using concrete or cement. They may include a hollow core to make them lighter and to improve their insulation properties. They have been in use since the 1930s when they were commonly used for the inner leaf of cavity walls. At this point they were made from an aggregate of stone or industrial waste such as clinker or breeze, hence the term ‘breezeblock’.
The kind of block selected for a particular application will depend on its:
- Load-bearing characteristics.
- Weight and handling properties.
- Thermal characteristics, such as U-value or thermal mass.
Dense blocks are usually made from cement, fine aggregate and course aggregate. They can be produced in a range of crushing strengths and tend to be used for structural purposes, such as foundations and load-bearing walls.
The advantage of lightweight blocks include their thermal insulation characteristics and ease of handling. During the last 80 years a variety of aggregates have been used - clinker blocks (8 parts clinker to 1 part cement), and blast furnace slag. They may be slightly more expensive than dense blocks
- Their closed cell structure means they have good resistance to water penetration.
- They provide good fire protection.
- They are easy to cut with a saw.
- They can accommodate fixings such as screws and nails.
For above ground uses, they might include mixes such as:
- cement : lime : sand 1 : 1 : 6
- cement : sand with plasticiser 1 : 6
- masonry cement : sand 1 : 5
- cement : lime : sand 1 : 2 : 9
Dense blocks are typically laid in mortars of average strength, 1:1:6 or 1:2:9. Stronger mortars may limit movement and may cause cracking of the blocks, although they are sometimes specified below ground level.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Aircrete blocks.
- Brick sizes.
- Coal ash.
- Damp-proof course.
- Defects in brickwork.
- Defects in stonework.
- How to lay block paving.
- How to lay bricks.
- Lime mortar.
- Parge coat.
- Types of brick.
- Types of brick bonding.
Featured articles and news
A right to light generally refers to the right to receive sufficient light through an opening.
Interference and compatibility - the effects of electromagnetic fields in the workplace.
Important action is being taken to inspire young people to train as engineers.
A survey of Leicester’s historic buildings resulted in local listing being taken more seriously.
Demolition is the most high risk activity in the construction sector. Read our introductory article here.
BSRIA report on the domestic boiler market, with China recording the most 'dynamic market uptake'.
Do we really know everything important about the impacts of our infrastructure projects? And if we don’t, does it matter?
Former Chief executive Richard Howson blames government for being 'poor payers'.
An environmental plan is an essential tool for setting and managing environmental objectives for a project.
CLC call for an 'outcome-based, transparent and efficient' industry with new report.