Construction and the Modern Slavery Act
In May 2018, the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB) launched a new report urging UK contractors to face up to the significant human rights risks in their supply chains, arguing that both British and foreign workers are at risk of exploitation due to current procurement practices.
'Construction and the Modern Slavery Act: Tackling exploitation in the UK' is published as the Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority (GLAA) and National Crime Agency (NCA) jointly lead a national enforcement campaign involving police forces and other agencies aimed at tackling labour exploitation. NCA analysis has identified construction as one of the most common sectors for labour exploitation in the UK.
Criticising the industry’s slow response to the Modern Slavery Act, the report highlights the aggressive business models that are creating an environment for unethical procurement and recruitment practices, and the systemic auditing failures that are allowing criminals to infiltrate major projects undetected.
Problems are set at the top of supply chains with lowest cost tendering, abuse of the retentions system and late payment pricing out ethical practice. The situation is creating an imbalance of power that leaves all nationalities vulnerable to exploitation. Illegal activities such as blacklisting are also believed to be continuing, despite recent high profile court cases.
Major contractors in construction typically have long and fragmented supply chains, with little visibility beyond tiers one or two. They are also heavily reliant on temporary migrant labour, a significant indicator of risk. Nevertheless, the report found examples of complacency and disbelief that major projects were vulnerable to criminal infiltration and human trafficking. This contrasted with incidents of modern slavery being found on major UK infrastructure programmes, PFI hospital projects, power plants, recycling centres, renovation projects, demolition sites and local authority schemes.
The report highlights:
- How industry is conflating immigration checks with modern slavery checks. This is ineffective because many people trapped in modern slavery have a legitimate right to work in the UK.
- Severe weaknesses in commercial auditing models, with auditors disincentivised to report problems to the police
- Poor transparency in supply chain reporting standards, with many eligible companies failing to produce a modern slavery report in the first annual reporting cycle. A significant number of published statements do not follow minimum legal requirements, including being visible on the company homepage and being signed off by a board director.
- A tendency for companies to water down their modern slavery statements to remove mention of risk, against the spirit of the Modern Slavery Act
- Examples of sharp practice, with major players defaulting to legal compliance exercises that push responsibility onto their less well-resourced suppliers. This is also against the spirit of the legislation.
The report explores the legal, investor and social pressures for driving change. It also highlights examples of industry best practice as well as platforms for information sharing, such as the GLAA’s construction forum. Strategies for rehabilitating survivors of slavery are included through the Co-op Group’s Bright Future programme.
CIOB is calling for a new industry narrative; asking contractors to acknowledge that every supply chain is at risk and collaborate more widely to combat crime. It is launching a Routemap to Fair Business which sets out steps for raising standards for all workers and suppliers, encouraging a more proactive approach to tackling systemic issues.
Chris Blythe OBE Chief Executive at the CIOB said:
“It’s time to get real about the challenges facing UK construction. Contrary to public perceptions, modern slavery is not confined to small illegal operators. Criminals are attracted to big business because of the greater profits that they can earn. Unscrupulous labour providers, operating in the grey area of the law, are also creating misery for thousands of British and foreign workers.
“We need to change the conversation that we have with clients, our peers and the media. Suppliers and labour agencies should be rewarded for finding and reporting problems, contractors need to promote fairer business models and clients need to be more explicit about their ethical expectations. This goes to the heart of professional leadership. We need to empower everyone working in this industry to act, share and collaborate for the greater good.”
Independent anti-slavery commissioner Kevin Hyland OBE said:
“The construction sector is recognised around the world as one of the highest risk industries for workers to be exploited in forced labour. It is therefore crucial that construction companies take meaningful action to prevent this crime from taking place within their operations and to ensure that anyone working in the sector within the UK or abroad are protected from abuse.
“This new report from the CIOB builds on its previous good work highlighting the issue. It provides clear ways for responsible companies to tackle slavery and ensure their labour supply is protected. I hope to see many construction businesses taking up its recommendations and making real changes, so that it can set an example to other high risk sectors.”
Roger Bannister, interim chief executive of the GLAA, said:
“There are huge profits to be made for those unscrupulous enough to exploit vulnerable workers and the building industry is extremely lucrative for them. We have carried out operations targeting those who traffic migrant workers into the UK and then force them to work on construction sites, often with false IDs.
“The protocol we developed in the autumn with the construction industry was a step in the right direction with some big names committing themselves to share information and play their part in tackling exploitation. We’d like to see more companies put their name to it and work with the GLAA in helping eradicate slavery altogether.”
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Articles by CIOB on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- Australian ethical labour sourcing standard.
- Building a fairer system: Tackling modern day slavery.
- Ethical labour sourcing standard.
- Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority (GLAA).
- Modern slavery.
- Modern Slavery Act and sustainable supply chains.
- Modern slavery and the supply chain.
- Modern slavery in the construction sector.
- Modern slavery toolkit.