Construction work packaging
Packaging is normally associated with general contractors who split a large project into a series of work packages suitable for obtaining tenders and placing orders with the subcontracting and goods supply chain thereby transferring risk for delivering some elements of the works to others. However the design team, generally advised by the cost consultant, may elect to pre-empt a general contractor by selecting specialist systems required for early inclusion into the evolving design. This creates a built in package requirement.
A package can include any or all of the following activities:
- Manufacture and/or supply.
- Pre-fabrication and delivery.
- Site installation.
- Operation and maintenance.
The conditions of the package contract will vary depending on the main contract arrangements.
Under a traditional contract the main contractor will split tender documents into subcontractor packages that are geared to the most competitive returns, which are then included in the main contractor’s tender offer to the client.
Under a management contract the client’s cost consultant and the management contractor, in co-operation with designers, decide how to package the works and direct the team as a whole to produce package designs suitable for obtaining subcontracts under the terms of the management contract. This method of procurement allows parallel working on design and construction. So, for example, work on the foundations and superstructure can commence before the design for the whole building is complete.
A construction management contract follows the procedure of a management contract except the package contractor enters into a direct contract with the client, administered by the construction manager.
The adoption of Building Information Modelling is likely to lead to an increase in the early appointment of specialist package contractors by design teams to avoid having their model unravelled by appointments that might otherwise have been made at a later stage. This suggests that in traditional tendering, main contractors will be forced to adopt the specialist without any freedom of choice. This may lead to some interesting legal wrangles in respect of non-performance or delays caused by the imposed specialist subcontractor.
- The interface between packages must be carefully considered, defined and constantly monitored.
- Elements can fall between packages (for example the flashing to a roof rainwater outlet).
- Responsibility and consequent liability must be clearly defined.
- The way each package is to be monitored should be agreed when placing orders to save package management resources and avoid man-for-man marking which is duplicative and costly.
- The risks transferred to the package contractor need to be proportionate to the size of organisation executing the package. For instance four weeks of full liquidated and ascertained damages might be of greater value than the subcontractor’s annual turnover and so would be unsustainable.
If the project is split down into too many packages it becomes confusing and unmanageable. As a very general rule of thumb the following might apply:
- On large building projects divide the project cost by £2m to establish the number of differently priced packages. For example; £200m = 100 packages, £50m = 25 packages and so on.
- On medium size building projects divide the project cost by £1m to establish the number of differently priced packages.
- On fit out projects, which have a high monthly turnover and a fast programme, stick to say five packages; mechanical, electrical, information technology, building work and furniture and equipment.
 Typical breakdown of packages (excluding preliminaries) on an office development
- Demolition and site clearance.
- Substructure and underground drainage.
- Cladding system.
- Roof and balcony finishes.
- Floor and staircase screeds.
- Mechanical installations and plumbing.
- Electrical installation.
- Raised access floors.
- Suspended ceilings.
- Metalwork and balustrades.
- Brick and blockwork.
- Prefabricated toilets.
- Internal partitions.
- Joinery and ironmongery.
- External works.
- Testing and commissioning.
- General building work including plastering.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Bills of quantities.
- Common arrangement of work sections.
- Comparison of SMM7 with NRM2.
- Construction management.
- Liquidated and ascertained damages.
- Management contract.
- New Rules of Measurement.
- Production information.
- Standard Method of Measurement (SMM7).
- Traditional contract.
- Trade contractor.
- Works contractor.
Featured articles and news
Read the story behind the world's most iconic festival stage, Glastonbury's Pyramid Stage.
First ever BREEAM Communities innovation credit is claimed by Temple Farm Development.
Read the story of Ronan Point, another disastrous event which had profound consequences for the construction industry.
CIOB to help conservation specialists gain recognition for their expertise with launch of new Certification Scheme.
A brief introduction to Building Information Modelling - is it the future of construction?
Have a look at Francis Kéré's 2017 pavilion, based on the concept of the tree as a place of shelter.
CIOB announce new commission to assess what more it and the industry can do to tackle build quality issues.
As the UK enjoys a heat wave, read all about the daylight factor.
Not only is this building shaped like a teapot, it can rotate 360-degrees.
What is ACM cladding, what is it used for, and is it banned?
Read about the largest transport project in Norway getting underway.
Read our review of a new guide aimed at helping architects avoid and resolve disputes.
Find out about specifying insulation for inverted roofs.
Have a look at the new project being trialled in Modena that 'eats' the equivalent air pollution of 275 urban trees.