Very broadly, foundations can be categorised as shallow foundations or deep foundations. Shallow foundations are typically used where the loads imposed by a structure are low relative to the bearing capacity of the surface soils.
Deep foundations are necessary where the bearing capacity of the surface soils is not adequate to support the loads imposed by a structure and so those loads need to be transferred to deeper layers with higher bearing capacity.
Shallow foundations include:
Raft foundations (sometimes referred to as mat foundations) are formed by reinforced concrete slabs of uniform thickness (typically 150 mm to 300 mm) that cover a wide area, often the entire footprint of a building. They spread the load imposed by a number of columns or walls over the area of foundation, and can be considered to ‘float’ on the ground as a raft floats on water.
They are suitable where:
- Floor areas are small and structural loadings are low, such as in one or tw0-storey domestic construction.
- A basement is required.
- Ground conditions are poor and strip or pad foundations would require significant excavation, for example on soft clay, alluvial deposits, compressible fill, and so on.
- Settlement, or differential settlement is likely.
- Where it may be impractical to create individual strip or pad foundations for a large number of individual loads. In very general terms, if strip or pad foundations would cover 50% or more of the floor area, then a raft may be more appropriate.
Raft foundations can be fast and inexpensive to construct, as they tend not to require deep excavations compared to strip or pad foundations and they may use less material as they combine the foundation with the ground slab. However, they tend to be less effective where structural loads are focussed on in a few concentrated areas, and they can be prone to erosion at their edges.
They are generally constructed on a compacted hardcore base (perhaps 100 mm thick). A layer of blinding concrete may then be laid to allow formation of the raft (typically 50mm) with a waterproof membrane above.
The concrete raft tends to include steel reinforcement to prevent cracking, and may incorporate beams or thickened areas to provide additional support for specific loads, for example, below internal walls or columns. Typically, a thickened reinforced area is created at the perimeter of the raft to form an edge beam supporting the external walls of the building. A concrete toe often supports the external leaf of the wall.
Types of raft foundation include:
- Solid slab raft (flat raft mat, wide toe raft, slip plane raft).
- Blanket raft.
- Slab beam raft.
- Cellular type raft.
- Piled raft foundation.
For more information see: Types of raft foundation.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Compensated foundation.
- Continuous flight auger piles.
- Driven piles.
- Geothermal pile foundations.
- Ground anchor.
- How to design a pad foundation.
- Pad foundation.
- Pile foundations.
- Piled raft foundation.
- Screw pile foundations.
- Strip foundation.
- Temporary works.
- Thermal labyrinths.
- Trench fill foundation.
- Types of pad foundation.
- Types of raft foundation.
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