- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 05 Feb 2018
There are a number of techniques of projection that can be used to represent three-dimensional objects in two-dimensions by 'projecting' their image onto a planar surface.
Drawing projections should comply with relevant standards (such as British Standards) to prevent misunderstanding and avoid errors in interpreting the drawing.
Orthographic projection is a type of 'parallel' projection in which the four orthogonal views of an object are shown. The orthographic projection commonly used in the UK is called first angle projection.
Axonometric projection creates a true plan set at 45º, which retains the original orthogonal geometry of the plan. It is particularly suitable for representing interior designs, such as kitchen layouts. Planning drawings can also be effective represented as axonometric projections, showing the relationships between buildings and topography.
The axonometric method became increasingly popular in the 20th century as a formal presentation technique, but recently has become less widely used due to the emergence of CAD programmes and building information modelling.
The isometric was the standard view until the mid-20th century. Unlike the axonometric projection, the isometric plan view is slightly distorted, using a plan grid at 30º from the horizontal in both directions. It can be used to show the nature of the design and explain construction details more clearly than an orthographic projection. It is sometimes used during concept design to help the client grasp the mass of the proposal.
When primary information is drawn in elevation, the interpretation can be enhanced by an oblique projection. This is a simple method of producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. The differentiating characteristic of oblique projection is that the drawn objects are not in perspective, and so do not correspond to any actual obtainable view.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Architectural reprography.
- As-built drawings and record drawings.
- Assembly drawing.
- Augmented reality in construction.
- Bill of quantities.
- Building information modelling.
- CAD layer.
- Component drawing.
- Computer aided design.
- Concept drawing.
- Detail drawing.
- Engineering drawing.
- Exploded view.
- General arrangement drawing.
- Geometric form.
- How to draw a floor plan.
- Installation drawings.
- Manual drafting techniques.
- North American Paper Sizes
- Notation and symbols.
- Orthogonal plan.
- Paper sizes (ISO 216 A, B and C series)
- Production information.
- Section drawing.
- Shop drawings.
- Site plan.
- Technical drawing.
- Types of drawings.
- Working drawing.
Featured articles and news
RIBA launches a consultation on a new Plan of Work for Fire Safety.
This article offers some basic rules to follow when writing your next specification.
The iconic Mackintosh Building will definitely be rebuilt, board chairwoman confirms.
The machinery used to fashion stone has changed dramatically - and so have the products.
This type of pile provides support to the building, as well as acting as a heat source and a heat sink.
Why investors are adopting the SDGs and why civil engineering could be crucial for delivering them.
Read about all the winners from the London ceremony of CIAT's 2018 Architectural Technology Awards.
How do you find the right stone to conserve historic buildings?
Appointment agreements often include a ‘scope of services’ setting out the consultant's performance on a project.
BSRIA study shows an increase of pre-terminated fibre connectivity.
Director of PiP Architecture explores the application of biophilic design principles.