- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 09 Sep 2020
Orthographic projection is a type of 'parallel' projection in which the four orthogonal views of an object are shown. The orthographic projection commonly used in the UK is called first angle projection.
Axonometric projection creates a true plan set at 45º, which retains the original orthogonal geometry of the plan. It is particularly suitable for representing interior designs, such as kitchen layouts. Planning drawings can also be effective represented as axonometric projections, showing the relationships between buildings and topography.
The axonometric method became increasingly popular in the 20th century as a formal presentation technique, but recently has become less widely used due to the emergence of CAD programmes and building information modelling.
NB Drawing for Understanding, Creating Interpretive Drawings of Historic Buildings, published by Historic England in 2016 suggests that axonometric projection: 'Is a type of parallel projection used for creating a drawing where the plan is drawn to scale but rotated at an angle of 60° or 30°along one or more of its axes relative to the normal axis.'
The isometric was the standard view until the mid-20th century. Unlike the axonometric projection, the isometric plan view is slightly distorted, using a plan grid at 30º from the horizontal in both directions. It can be used to show the nature of the design and explain construction details more clearly than an orthographic projection. It is sometimes used during concept design to help the client grasp the mass of the proposal.
When primary information is drawn in elevation, the interpretation can be enhanced by an oblique projection. This is a simple method of producing two-dimensional images of three-dimensional objects. The differentiating characteristic of oblique projection is that the drawn objects are not in perspective, and so do not correspond to any actual obtainable view.
'Parallel projections have lines of projection that are parallel both in reality and in the projection plane.' Ref Drawing for Understanding, Creating Interpretive Drawings of Historic Buildings, published by Historic England in 2016.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Architectural reprography.
- As-built drawings and record drawings.
- Assembly drawing.
- Augmented reality in construction.
- Bill of quantities.
- Building information modelling.
- CAD layer.
- Component drawing.
- Computer aided design.
- Concept drawing.
- Detail drawing.
- Engineering drawing.
- Exploded view.
- General arrangement drawing.
- Geometric form.
- How to draw a floor plan.
- Installation drawings.
- Manual drafting techniques.
- North American Paper Sizes
- Notation and symbols.
- Orthogonal plan.
- Paper sizes (ISO 216 A, B and C series)
- Production information.
- Section drawing.
- Shop drawings.
- Site plan.
- Technical drawing.
- Types of drawings.
- Working drawing.
Featured articles and news
Brick slip soffit systems and intricate brick features.
An innovative engineering approach could have had tragic consequence for NYC.
Some secrets behind how canals work.
Breaking down possible steps of pre-contract management.
ICE event includes comments from Welsh Government Minister Julie James.
How to write them and what they should include.
Designing Buildings Wiki becomes the world's first website to adopt the new knowledge standard.
Assessing the most beneficial design elements.
Exploring different types of vinyl flooring.
New Government task force will build beauty into reformed planning process.
Five outstanding aspects of the profession.
The seismic strengthening of historic churches.