Thermographic survey of buildings
According to the Technology Strategy Board, in the UK, the built environment accounts for 45% of total carbon emissions (27% from domestic buildings and 18% from non-domestic). Much of this is wasted, through: inefficient operation; inefficient equipment, appliances, machinery and plant; and losses through the building fabric. Findings from the PROBE studies (Post Occupancy Review of Buildings and their Engineering) demonstrated that actual energy consumption in buildings will usually be twice as much as predicted.
Losses through the building fabric might be the result of poor design, low-quality materials, poor workmanship, poor maintenance, or changes that have been made since completion. These losses can go unnoticed as the problem may be hidden within the building fabric.
Thermographic surveys can help identify problems, using infrared cameras to reveal differences in surface temperatures. They locate areas of the building fabric that may be hotter or colder than surrounding areas, suggesting that there are specific losses in that area. The visual and immediate nature of the survey results can offer a relatively inexpensive and non-invasive way of helping clients and other stakeholders to understand the significance of problems that might otherwise be difficult to conceptualise.
In relation to thermal losses, a thermographic survey can help identify:
- Whether the design and specification has been complied with.
- Whether there is continuity of insulation.
- Wet insulation.
- Problems with cladding.
- Structural defects.
- Air leakage and air infiltration.
- Problems with heating, cooling and ventilation systems.
- Problems with glazing, doors and seals.
- Cold bridging.
- Whether the quality of materials and workmanship is consistent.
It might also be used to:
- Locate under-floor or underground pipes.
- Identify problems related to moisture penetration.
- Locate blockages in flues.
- Locate insect infestations.
- Locate electrical problems.
Whilst thermogaphic surveys may be relatively inexpensive, the problems identified can be very costly to rectify as they may involved deconstructing elements of a building, or may be issues that repeat throughout the building (for example incorrectly installed glazing).
A thermographic survey might be undertaken for a single building, several buildings, a site or an organisation, and might be carried out for commercial or domestic clients. It might be undertaken as an isolated study, or as part of a wider energy audit undertaken to assess total energy use and propose measures to reduce consumption and costs. See Energy audit for more information.
From December 2015, energy audits will be required every four years for all large enterprises with more than 250 employees or a turnover exceeding €50m. See Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) for more information.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Air permeability testing.
- Air tightness in buildings.
- Cold bridge.
- Conventions for calculating linear thermal transmittance and temperature factors.
- Draughts in buildings.
- Energy audit.
- Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme.
- Performance gap.
- Site inspection.
- The history of non-domestic air tightness testing.
 External references.
Featured articles and news
Have a look at our article explaining the different types of construction contractor.
Futurist Thomas Frey explores the concept of Disposable Housing - could it be a reality sooner than we imagine?
ICE to host new exhibition offering a window onto the civil engineering achievements beneath our feet.
Do you know all the various types of defects in brickwork?
US museum reveals plans for an installation made entirely of paper tubes.
Review of a book looking at how contemporary architecture found its expression within neoliberal capitalism.
The Great Mosque of Djenne, the largest mud-brick building in the world.
Amanda Clack, RICS President offers recommendations to government on Brexit and the construction skills shortage.
Tired of the commute? This architecture firm believes the best solution is to take cars underground.
Why do so many women leave engineering? Probably not for the reason you’re thinking.
For over 30 years David Trench was one of the UK's leading project managers. Read about his career through some of his most famous projects.
Leading institutes join forces calling for property flood resilience measures to help householders avoid repeat flooding.