The Estadio Jornalista Mario Filho, or Maracana Stadium as it is more commonly known, is a football stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
It was built by the Brazilian government after winning the right to host the 1950 FIFA World Cup. In 1947, a competition for the design and construction was launched, with the construction contract awarded to engineer Humberto Menescal, and the architectural contract awarded to seven Brazilian architects.
Since then it has been a prominent venue for club and international football, and has also hosted other sporting events and music concerts.
The stadium will be the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.
 Design and construction
Construction work began on the stadium in August 1948, with a little under two years before the first World Cup game was due to be played. Work quickly fell behind the tight schedule, meaning that a work force of 1,500 had to be employed, with an additional 2,000 in the final months, to be ready on time.
The stadium is characterised by its elliptical framework which is almost circular, and the maximum height is only 24 m (78 ft). Two large rings of tiers run round the entire stadium divided by medium-sized open boxes, with a cantilevered roof spanning 30 m covering the rows at the rear of the stadium.
Despite the stadium having come into use in 1950, the construction was only fully completed in 1965. It was not only considered one of the most luxurious stadiums in the world, but was also commended for its functionality and security. Two large external flights connect the stadium’s upper tiers with the surrounding park, enabling a fast evacuation time.
During a football match in July 1992, an upper stand collapsed, killing 3 spectators and injuring 50 others. Following this disaster, it was converted to an all-seater stadium, greatly reducing the capacity. Around the same time, it was classified as a national landmark and saved from possible demolition.
With the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics approaching, a major reconstruction project was started in 2010. Analysis of the existing structure revealed that the cantilevered concrete roof had become functionally inadequate and lacked sufficient structural safety.
The roof was removed and the original two-tier seating bowl demolished, to be replaced with a one-tier configuration. The original reinforced concrete columns of the old bowl were retained and used to support a new lightweight roof structure that was designed as a spoked wheel laid horizontally.
The innovative roof structure features one compression ring and three tension rings, which give it the appearance of floating. Between the rim of the wheel – the compression ring – and the tension rings at the roof’s inner edge, there are a series of high-strength spoke cables.
The roof covering is a fibreglass-tensioned membrane coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The surface is stabilised using additional radial filet cables, which also ensure adequate water drainage. The membrane sections have a gently-curved deltoid shape, and emphasise the deliberately cautious intervention into the existing concrete structure.
Just six months on from the 2016 Games, concern was raised by the Rio de Janeiro Football Federation about the deteriorating state of the Maracana, as well as a number of other venues purpose-built for the Olympics in Rio.
As no one took over responsibility for the up-keep of the stadium after the closing ceremony, reports have surfaced of the rapid disrepair of the stadium. Worms have damaged the threadbare playing surface, internal windows have been smashed, copper wire stolen from walls and ceilings.
In addition, due to general looting, around 10% of the 78,000 seats have been torn up. Looters have also stolen fire extinguishers, hoses, televisions and even a bronze bust of Mario Filho, the journalist after whom the stadium was named.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
The IHBC lists quality providers of education and learning in the historic built environment, and emails a monthly recap of their upcoming events.
On Læsø, houses are thatched with thick, heavy bundles of silvery seaweed that have the potential to be a contemporary building material around the world.
For the first time in its history, England’s largest festival of heritage and culture will feature online events as well as in-person activities. Heritage Open Days (HODs) returns in September, thanks to support from players of People’s Postcode Lottery.
The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) shows the scale of the ‘missed opportunity’ if we continue to separate heritage policymaking and economic policymaking.
The resource format has proved to be a successful way of providing guidance for local authorities on crucial policy topics.
Insight into the smart ways to design building services to ensure they perform as designed without being over-engineered
Historic England (HE) has awarded £250,000 towards the restoration of the Union Chain Bridge, built in 1820, spanning the River Tweed near Berwick.
One of Ireland’s most distinguished architectural historians explores the differences between ‘restoration’ and ‘repair’ and Conservation ethics in issue 163 of CONTEXT.
Architects say buildings should be protected – to fight climate change, reports the BBC on recent evidence given to the Commons Environmental Audit Committee (EAC).
It includes articles on Rethinking Retrofit to not waste carbon and not damage buildings, Assessing Moisture in porous building materials, conserving the Burns Monument using lime grout and injection mortars, Curated Decay, and more.