- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 28 Jan 2019
Legionnaires’ disease is a form of pneumonia that can be fatal, and is particularly serious for older people, people who smoke, heavy drinkers, people with impaired immunity, and people with illnesses such as chronic respiratory disease, kidney disease, diabetes, lung disease or heart disease.
Legionella is commonly found in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, but its presence is limited and rarely causes legionnaires' disease. However, it can multiply in systems such as cooling towers, evaporative condensers, hot and cold water systems, spa pools, and other plant and systems where there may be a risk during operation or maintenance, for example where:
- The water temperature is between 20°C and 45°C.
- Water droplets can be produced and dispersed.
- Water is stored or re-circulated.
- Deposits such as rust, sludge, scale, organic matter and biofilms are present.
- Controlling the release of water spray.
- Avoiding temperatures likely to permit the growth of legionella.
- Ensuring water cannot stagnate.
- Avoiding materials that permit the growth of legionella.
- Ensuring that systems and water are clean.
- Treating water.
- The Health and Safety at Work etc Act.
- The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH).
- The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations.
- The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR).
- The Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations.
- Health and Safety (Consultation with Employees) Regulations.
The Health and Safety Executive has published, an approved code of practice (ACOP) Legionnaires’ disease: The control of Legionella bacteria in water systems, and measures adopted must be at least as effective as those described.
The approved code of practice applies to, ‘...premises controlled in connection with a trade, business or other undertaking where water is used or stored; and where there is a means of creating and transmitting water droplets (aerosols) which may be inhaled, causing a reasonably foreseeable risk of exposure to legionella bacteria.’
It sets out duties for employers and people with responsibilities for the control of premises such as landlords. Dutyholders should take suitable precautions to prevent or control the risk of exposure to legionella, including:
- Identifying and assessing sources of risk.
- Where necessary, preparing a written scheme for preventing or controlling the risk.
- Implementing, managing and monitoring precautions.
- Keeping records of the precautions taken.
- Appointing a competent person to help take the measures needed.
Whilst Legionnaires’ disease remains an uncommon and sporadic infection, in January 2019, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ( an agency of the European Union ) published the Annual Epidemiological Report for 2017: Legionnaires’ disease which revealed that in 2017, 30 countries reported 9,238 cases. Of the 6,976 cases with known outcome, 8% were fatal. The report found a 30% increase in cases of Legionnaires’ disease in 2017 compared with 2016.
The increasing in notifications is thought to be driven factors including; improved surveillance, an ageing population, travel patterns and changes in climate and weather factors. It is thought that conditions such as temperature, humidity and rainfall have had an effect on the bacterial ecology and/or an increased use of aerosol-producing devices or installations such as cooling towers.
In 2017, the vast majority of threats monitored were travel-associated cases. In addition, nine countries reported community- or hospital-acquired outbreaks. Thirteen EU/EEA countries reported no outbreaks.
The report recommends regular checks for the presence of Legionella bacteria and appropriate control measures applied to engineered water systems, in particular at tourist accommodation sites, in hospitals, in long-term healthcare facilities and in other settings where sizeable populations at higher risk may be exposed.
You can read the report in full at: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/legionnaires-disease-annual-epidemiological-report-2017
 Related articles in Designing Buildings Wiki
- Cooling tower.
- HSG 274 Legionnaires' disease, Technical guidance.
- Managing risks in existing buildings: An overview of UK risk-based legislation for commercial and industrial premises (FB 86).
- Risk assessment.
- Evaporative cooling.
- Health and safety Executive.
- Health and safety.
 External references.
Featured articles and news
Rebuilding could take 20 to 40 years.
RSHP’s high-rise residential towers win a tall buildings award for excellence.
BSRIA study reveals strong growth in 2018.
Dame Judith Hackitt confirmed as keynote speaker – one year on from the Hackitt Report.
Save £100 on tickets.
Modern slavery in the construction sector.
What to bear in mind when claiming damages in construction.
How do we achieve sustainable clean-water infrastructure for all?
What you should know when appointing an architect.
A brief history plus some new developments.
How computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps building design.
The Hong Kong Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS).
'Expressions of interest' for construction contracts.