- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 06 Sep 2018
For more information, see Cooling tower design and construction.
It can be necessary to provide cooling to buildings during warm weather, or where there are significant thermal gains (such as solar gain, people and equipment). This cooling is sometimes referred to as comfort cooling. Cooling may also be necessary for refrigeration or for some industrial processes.
Evaporative cooling is one of the methods that can be used to provide cooling. When water evaporates, it absorbs significant amounts of heat energy (latent heat, expressed in J/kg). The water itself does not change temperature, as the energy is consumed by the physical process of changing its state from liquid to gas. This produces a cooling effect in its surroundings. So when water evaporates from the surface of a building, or when sweat evaporates from the skin, this has a cooling effect. Conversely, when water condenses it releases heat.
Direct evaporative coolers (sometimes referred to as sump coolers, swamp coolers, or desert coolers), draw hot, dry air through a continually dampened pad and supply cool, humid air.
Cooling towers reject heat through the evaporation of water in a moving air stream within the cooling tower. The temperature and humidity of the air stream increases through contact with the warm water, and this air is then discharged. The cooled water is collected at the bottom of the tower. This process can achieve lower temperatures than air-cooled heat rejection systems.
Cooling towers, can be small-scale roof-top installations, medium-sized packaged units, or very large hyperboloid structures sometimes associated with industrial processes or power stations with their characteristic plume of water vapour in the exhaust air.
Cooling towers can be open or closed circuit. Closed circuit cooling towers (or fluid coolers) feed the ‘warm’ water over a 'fill' through which the air is flowing. The cool water is collected, and the humid air discharged remotely to prevent recirculation. This closed process relies entirely on the rejection of heat through the air. The flow of air through the fill can be horizontal (crossflow) or vertical (counterflow).
In open-circuit cooling towers (or wet cooling towers), the hot humid air is discharged direct to the atmosphere. This can be more straight forward, however, there is a risk of contamination as the cooling tower is open, and the proportion of water that evaporates must be replaced resulting in the progressive concentration of the water. The build up of minerals and other solids in the water must then be regulated.
The air flow in cooling towers can be mechanically driven (induced draft) or naturally driven (natural draft), relying on the buoyancy of the warm exhaust air to generate ‘draft’.
The water flow can be gravity driven or can be a pressurised spray.
In HVAC systems, the cooling tower is used to reject heat from chiller units which supply chilled water for comfort cooling systems. These will typically cool air in air handling units that is then ducted to the internal spaces of the building. Water-cooled chillers can be more efficient than air-cooled chillers, but more infrastructure (and so space) is required.
NB: Wet cooling towers have the potential for legionella growth. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) require that appropriate measures are taken to prevent or control the risk of legionella. These must be at least as effective as the measures described in Legionnaires’ disease: The control of Legionella bacteria in water systems.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Absorption refrigeration.
- Air handling unit.
- Cooling tower design and construction.
- Evaporative cooling.
- Health and Safety Executive.
- HSG 274 Legionnaires' disease, Technical guidance.
- Legionnaires' disease.
 External references.
Featured articles and news
Assembling, curating, caring for, and designing the future.
A sensitive approach to renovating a building of historic stature.
UK energy policy uncertainty as Welsh project put on hold
What collaborative working achieves and how it can be put in place.
BSRIA publishes the 2019 edition of its small but concise annual databook.
Using QSAND to measure the performance of disaster response.
What U-values are, why they matter and how they are calculated.
The need to ensure that we plan for all aspects of our bio-economy
BSRIA calls on government to reach deeper into the causes of pollution.
George Demetri brings a whole new level of technical knowledge to Designing Buildings Wiki.
Quality professionals need to take an active role in driving the completion process forwards.
The innovations needed to move from rhetoric to realisation.