- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 17 Jul 2018
To help develop this article, click 'Edit this article' above.
- Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems (HVAC).
- Machinery, equipment and industrial processes.
Where this waste heat is at a low-temperature, it may have limited useful capacity for work and so it may be rejected to the environment. However, if it is suitable for use in another process, a portion of heat that would otherwise be wasted might be reused. This is known as heat recovery.
Typically in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems, air cooling rejects heat to the outside air by circulating 'outside' air over coils containing 'hot' fluid returning from the building. Heat is transferred from the coil to the air which is then rejected to the outside. See cooling for more information.
Direct evaporative coolers (sometimes referred to as sump coolers, swamp coolers, or desert coolers) draw hot, dry air through a continually dampened pad and supply cool, humid air.
Cooling towers reject heat through the evaporation of water in a moving air stream within the cooling tower. The temperature and humidity of the air stream increases through contact with the warm water, and this air is then discharged. The cooled water is collected at the bottom of the tower. This process can achieve lower temperatures than air-cooled heat rejection systems. See Cooling towers for more information.
Earth-to-air heat exchangers draw air through buried ducts or tubes (sometimes referred to as earth tubes). As the temperature of the ground below 3m is practically constant, it can be used to substantially reduce air temperatures. See Earth-to-air heat exchanger for more information.
Heat recovery is the process of collecting and re-using heat that would otherwise be lost. This can help reduce the energy consumption of the process or the heat can be used elsewhere, reducing running costs and carbon emissions. See Heat recovery for more information.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
Featured articles and news
Common difficulties when improving the management of building services.
England’s railway heritage from the air. Book review.
Identifying interim heritage areas for a neighbourhood plan.
Inspecting and reporting on moisture-related problems.
Will Norway build the world's first floating tunnel?
Domestic Retrofit training course.
Preparing to sell a commercial property.
Local Plan Route Mapper and toolkit.
Thermal mass in buildings.
CIAT's AT Academy.
The UK's most dangerous industries to work in.