Designation can be used to protect areas of value and scientific interest and to ensure that such areas are properly managed. This includes areas of particular value for the conservation of species, habitats, historic and cultural assets and landscapes of great value or beauty.
Designation is driven by a goal to conserve and enhance such areas and is underpinned by UK and international legislation. Development within or near designated areas is subject to additional controls.
SSSIs were first established in 1949 by the Nature Conservancy so the conservation of important sites of natural habitat, wildlife and geological heritage could be taken into account during the planning process. Today, Natural England has responsibility for identifying and protecting SSSIs in England under the provisions of the Wildlife and Countryside Act.
- Ancient woodlands.
- Species-rich grasslands.
- Coastal marshes and mudflats.
- Unique geological formations.
 Special Areas of Conservation (SAC)
 Special Protection Areas (SPA)
In Scotland, a National Scenic Area (NSA) is an area of countryside with high scenic value of national importance and interest that has statutory protection to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of its landscape.
National Scenic Areas (NSAs) include:
- Mountain ranges.
- Diverse landscapes.
 National Nature Reserves (NNR)
Marine protected areas include Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) for habitats of European importance, Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for birds, Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) and Marine Nature Reserves designated to conserve marine flora and fauna and features of special interest.
Heritage coasts are areas of coastline managed to conserve and enhance their natural beauty, facilitate appreciation by the public, and maintain and improve their environmental health. They are defined areas rather than designated and so establishing them does not require the statutory designation process, they are protected by planning through development control.
 Local Nature Reserves (LNR)
Other local sites where restrictions might apply include registered common land and registered town or village greens. In addition, conservation areas, tree preservation orders and listed buildings require additional consent for development.
- Ancient woodland.
- Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
- Archaeology and construction.
- Archaeological officer.
- Blue belt.
- Civic Amenities Act.
- Common area.
- Conservation areas.
- Conservation officer.
- Designated land.
- Ecological network.
- European sites.
- Heritage Action Zone.
- Heritage coast.
- Historic England.
- Listed buildings.
- Local green space.
- Local interest list.
- Local Nature Reserve.
- Making Local Nature Recovery Strategies deliver.
- National nature reserves.
- National parks.
- National Scenic Area NSA.
- Natural England.
- Natural environment white paper.
- Nature improvement area.
- Ramsar sites.
- Scheduled monuments.
- Site of biological importance.
- Site of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI).
- Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
- Special areas of conservation.
- Special protection areas.
- Statutory authorities.
- Statutory permissions.
- The history of conservation areas.
- Tree preservation orders.
- Types of land.
- Village greens.
- World heritage site.
 External references
Ireland’s Minister for Rural and Community Development, Heather Humphreys, announced a new funding stream to support Local Authorities (LAs) to purchase vacant buildings that could be converted and developed for community use.
Eleven pubs across England have been recognised for their historic or unusual interiors, as they have been listed, upgraded or relisted.
The Heritage Sector Resilience Plan, developed by the Historic Environment Forum (HEF) with the support of Historic England, has been launched.
An ‘All-Island’ commitment to Ireland’s vernacular heritage has been established with the signing of the North South Agreement on Vernacular Heritage, supporting traditional buildings etc.
Canons House, a landmark building on Bristol Harbourside, has been awarded Grade II (GII) listed status having been built as a regional headquarters for Lloyds Bank between 1988 and 1991 (Arup)
The Building Research Establishment (BRE) has announced a new project with the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to improve and modernise the home energy rating scheme used to measure the energy and environmental performance of UK homes.
Sector lead the Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) has recognised the IHBC’s professional accreditation and support (CPD etc.) in awarding its PQP (Professionally Qualified Person) cards.
Work to repair a fire-hit medieval hotel in Gloucester is underway as crews have started work to strip back some of the modern trappings and reveal the historic framework.
The Secretariat to the European Heritage Heads Forum has has coordinated its declaration of solidarity and support for Ukraine’s cultural heritage institutions.
2022 will see the IHBC mark a quarter of a century since our incorporation as a professional body supporting and accrediting built and historic environment conservation specialists. We’re kick-starting it by inviting your ideas on how to mark this special year!