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Last edited 27 Jan 2021
Biotechnology: The key to zero energy buildings
A joint venture was established in August 2019 between Newcastle University and Northumbria University to explore how to use biotechnology to create zero-energy buildings. Ben Bridgens of Newcastle University reports.
 Nature's connection to construction
In practice this has meant using vast quantities of energy and primarily fossil fuels, to extract and process materials from the ground to create the steel, concrete, brick and cement from which the majority of buildings and infrastructure are constructed.
Such buildings are energy intensive to heat and cold and are made from inert materials which do not respond to the dynamic climatic conditions and require maintenance to ensure their continued functioning.
In reality the great sources of power in nature are abundant energy from the sun, photosynthesis, growth, reproduction, evolution, adaptation and symbiotic ecosystems − complex interacting systems which share nutrients and energy. So, rather than trying to use energy-intensive industrial processes to create zero-energy buildings and infrastructure, civil engineers should consider harnessing the power of nature using biotechnology.
 New biotechnology hub
The Hub for Biotechnology in the Built Environment (HBBE) is a new joint initiative between Newcastle University and Northumbria University. It was set up in August 2019 with £8 million funding from Research England.
HBBE sees huge untapped potential in biotechnology to change the way the built environment is constructed, operated and maintained. Its initial work will focus on the use of microorganisms across three main areas: living construction, building metabolisms and microbial environment.
Living construction means growing construction materials using microbes and fungus. This will involve research into microbially synthesised mineral crystals to replace cement, bacterial production of cellulose fibres and bioplastics, and bacterial spore-based materials which change shape in response to water.
Such materials have the potential to go beyond simply replacing existing construction materials with environmentally benign alternatives, to adding new functionality including self-healing materials and responsive materials which adapt to the internal or external environment.
 Metabolisms and microbiomes
Building metabolism research involves developing new microbial technologies which operate rather like a building’s stomach, processing the occupants’ waste and generating energy and other useful products. Technologies will range from small-scale bioreactors for micro-generation of electricity from human waste, production of nutrients for growing food from human and food waste, and development of enzymes which can degrade plastics to create valuable products within the home.
HBBE will also investigate ways in which people might live in greater harmony with environmental microbes and viruses in a healthy ‘microbiome’. New types of biological sensing systems could enable creation of probiotic materials, surfaces and ventilation systems to promote ‘good bacteria’ within buildings.
Many of the individual technologies are already being developed by researchers at laboratory scale. HBBE will work across scales and disciplines, from nano-scale manipulation of genetic information through to developing prototypes, which will involve collaboration between biologists, engineers and architects, all the way to full-scale implementation and testing within an experimental house.
While each of the technologies could be beneficial in its own right, the truly transformative potential will come from developing them together by considering the building and its materials, systems and occupants as a symbiotic system, with ‘waste’ from one process providing ‘food’ for another, to achieve self-sufficient, durable, healthy buildings for the future.
This article is based on an update of the authors’ briefing article in the 173 CE1 issue of the ICE Civil Engineering journal. It was published on 2 April 2020 on The ICE Civil Engineer Blog and written by Ben Bridgens, Senior Lecturer in Architectural Technology, Newcastle University.
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