Last edited 09 Nov 2018

Garden cities


[edit] Introduction

The Town and Country Planning Association (TCPA) suggest, that a garden city is a ‘holistically planned new settlement which enhances the natural environment, tackles climate change and provides high quality housing and locally accessible jobs in beautiful, healthy and sociable communities’.

They were described in Ebenezer Howard’s 1898 publication ‘To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform’ as having, ’...the advantages of the most energetic and active town life, with all the beauty and delight of the country...'

Howard went on to become founder of the Garden City Association (now the Town and Country Planning Association) and by 1903 land had been purchased for the first Garden City at Letchworth. This was followed in 1919 by land acquisition for the creation of Welwyn Garden City. These projects were followed by the New Towns programme in the aftermath of the Second World War, which promoted the development of larger, 'new towns' such as Milton Keynes.

The Garden City idea has remained popular, and the TCPA suggest that 21st Century Garden City principles include:

(Ref. TCPA Creating Garden Cities and Suburbs Today.)

[edit] Locally-led Garden Cities

The supply of new homes remains a key priority for the UK government, and in April 2014, it published the Locally-led Garden Cities prospectus which set out a broad support package for local authorities to develop garden cities. The prospectus is aimed at providing guidance for proposals which must be locally-led, include at least 15,000 homes and be supported by existing residents.

Local authorities with an interest are invited to put forward ideas:

  • For how they would like to develop garden cities.
  • How they wish to make use of the existing central-government funding and support.
  • What else they require in terms of freedoms, flexibilities and support to make new garden cities a reality.

More than £1 billion in funding is being provided between 2015 and 2020 and it is hoped that this will deliver up to 250,000 homes.

The government is offering a variety of support, depending on the requirements of the local authority:

There is an ongoing invitation for the expression of interest with no fixed deadline via the Department for Communities and Local Government.

In December 2015, it was announced that two new ‘garden towns’ were being supported with £1.1 million funding. The proposals for Didcot in Oxfordshire and for North Essex will provide up to 50,000 new homes by 2031. Other government-recognised ‘garden townprojects include; Ebbsfleet in Kent, Bicester in Oxfordshire, Basingstoke and North Northants. See Garden towns for more information.

In the 2016 budget, the government announced it would legislate to make it easier for local authorities to work together to create new garden towns, as well as consult on a second wave of Compulsory Purchase Order (CPO) reforms with the objective of making the CPO process clearer, fairer and quicker. It also announced technical and financial support to areas that want to establish garden villages and market towns of between 1,500 to 10,000 homes.

In March 2016, the government published Locally-led garden villages, towns and cities a prospectus inviting expressions of interest from local authorities wanting to create new communities based on garden city principles.

[edit] Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki

[edit] External references