- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 28 May 2019
The phrase 'off-site construction' refers to the completion of elements or components of a construction project at a different location to where they will be permanently installed. Typically, this can involve planning, design, fabrication and assembly in purpose-built off-site factories. The completed item is then transported to site and assembled in place.
Off-site locations may be permanent manufacturing facilities, or 'flying factories', that is, temporary facilities that operate for the duration of a project and then 'fly' to a new location to service another project.
Off-site construction is often referred to as 'prefabrication', 'off-site manufacture' or 'modern methods of construction', and it may involve modular construction. It is most commonly concerned with permanent structures rather than temporary or relocatable structures.
Mark Farmer's 2017 report 'Modernise or die' adopted the term 'pre-manufacture' as '...a generic term to embrace all processes which reduce the level of on-site labour intensity and delivery risk', and suggested that this could range from '...component level standardisation and lean processes through to completely pre-finished volumetric solutions'.
Off-site construction has increasingly been promoted as a solution to many of the problems facing the UK construction industry. This is because of the significant time-efficiencies that can be achieved through using off-site techniques, as well as better safety, reduced waste, higher quality, reduced down time and so on.
Off-site construction is particularly suited to high-volume, repetitive components, or products that require factory conditions to achieve the desired level of quality. It is widely considered that housing should be an obvious target for off-site construction.
However, the initial set-up costs can be high, and it can be difficult to maintain a sufficiently consistent pipeline of demand to suit assembly line production methods. Transport costs can also be high. In addition, there have been lingering concerns regarding the label 'prefabricated' as a result of poor-quality mass-produced housing that was pre-fabricated following the second world war, as well as the Ronan Point collapse in 1968.
Modernise or die looked forward to a fourth industrial revolution underpinned by cyber-physical ‘smart’ production techniques, which it described as 'Industry 4.0’. However, it acknowledged that in many respects, construction has yet to achieve ‘Industry 3.0’ status, which would simply require large scale use of electronics and IT to automate production.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Advanced manufacturing.
- BSRIA launches Offsite Construction for Building Services topic guide.
- Construction problems avoided by using a modular approach.
- Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA).
- Flying factory for construction works.
- Modern methods of construction.
- Modular buildings.
- Off site materials.
- Offsite manufacturing.
- Offsite manufacturing and standardised design.
- Off-site manufacture for construction: Building for change.
- Off site, on track.
- Off-site prefabrication of buildings: A guide to connection choices.
- Platform approach to design for manufacture and assembly.
- Plug and play skyscrapers.
- Ronan Point.
- The overlooked secret of off-site fabrication.
- What does in situ mean?
Featured articles and news
Protecting employees from hearing damage.
One of the largest office buildings in the world.
Who holds the risk for COVID-19?
Insights from New York.
A quick introduction to a very complicated subject.
CIOB suggests the economic reach of construction is double the official figures.
The first US building to achieve BREEAM Outstanding In-Use.
70 buildings from 70 years of Concrete Quarterly. Book review.
Conserving the iron roof at the Albert Dock.
Delivering an infrastructure revolution.
The admissibility of evidence.