- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
- Specialist wikis
Last edited 01 Mar 2021
How is modular construction keeping waste out of landfills?
Although modular construction can be eco-friendly, with energy-efficient build methods, there is still a need for significant commitment to the world's resources. This means keeping the materials heading to landfill to a minimum.
To put this into context, the average new-build project produces 3.9 pounds of waste per square foot. This means that new 50,000ft office block built in the centre of a town will have created almost two hundred thousand pounds of waste – or about 100 tonnes. Only about 20% of this is likely to be recycled. Ultimately, demolition will also add to this.
 The advantage of modular to the environment
Modular buildings are constructed inside, along a production line similar to a factory. This has some distinct advantages, which allows for the preservation of materials. First, as the components are not exposed to the weather, the quality is retained. This reduces wastage. Second, as the units are produced again and again for clients, the supplies can be ordered in and stored onsite. This means that any left-over resources from one project can be used on subsequent modules.
Reports suggest that off-site production can reduce waste by 90%. The controlled environment not only protects against weather conditions but also site theft. As the unit is delivered 80% complete, any work done on site is finished quickly. Therefore, the chance for onsite waste to gather is limited merely by the practicalities of time.
This is not just about the resources sent to landfill. Quicker construction times reduce the need for traffic to and from the site. Diesel fumes are a significant contributor to poor air quality. Second, the shorter construction time means energy requirements are proportionally reduced.
 Reduce the need for demolition
Demolishing the a 50,000ft building creates 4,000 tonnes of waste, much of which cannot be recycled as it is contaminated with other materials. All the glass, wood, steel and other resources that could be recycled are combined with materials that are non-renewable and non-recyclable. Therefore, all this material may go to landfill.
Modular construction is premised on the environmental mantra of reduce, reuse and recycle. Much of the module unit can now be built using recycled glass, steel and wood. Any materials meant for one project do not need to be discarded; they can be reused in the next project, reducing the need for purchasing more. Then, when deconstructed, which can be done as quickly as constructed, the parts can be recycled.
In short, the significant factor for the environment and the overflowing landfill sites is that module construction is not demolished. First, the module unit can be moved. Therefore, if there is a sudden need for a different use for the land, then there is no need to knock down the building and discard it. The unit can be deconstructed and moved to the new location. Similarly, if the building is no longer needed at all, the components can be reused. This reduces the need for additional material and the energy required to buy new.
Traditional construction methods can be material- and energy-intensive. The high-energy techniques, the additional transportation needs and the potential loss and degradation of materials can all add to the cost to the planet. In contrast, modular construction can offer greener and more sustainable building practices which should be a priority for all constructors.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- BSRIA launches Offsite Construction for Building Services topic guide.
- Construction problems avoided by using a modular approach.
- Custom build home.
- Design for deconstruction.
- Design for deconstruction, BRE modular show house.
- Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA).
- Factory-made housing
- Futuro House.
- Kit house.
- Modern methods of construction.
- Modular buildings in the educational sector.
- Off-site construction.
- Off site, on track.
- Off-site prefabrication of buildings: A guide to connection choices.
- Self build home.
- Structure relocation.
Featured articles and news
The teacher, architectural technologist and mum offers her insights.
Careful planning needed as supply chain issues continue.
The sensitive conversion of a neglected Cornwall structure.
Plan stresses local involvement in city, town and village development.
Environment Agency publishes BAT guidance.
CLC guidance outlines carbon reduction priorities.
Making the most of a staycation.
Organisation urges G20 to revisit wind energy.
The historian spent much of his life compiling architectural resources.
How technology can expose efficiency levels in existing buildings.
The garden heritage of Oxford and Cambridge. Book reviews.
Building capacity to better manage heritage.