Global pressures and the future of building technologies
Having updated BSRIA’s key market studies on Building Automation Controls (BACS), Building Energy Management (BEMS) and Smart Evolution – towards the Internet of Everything, --BSRIA’s Henry Lawson was struck by a world in a state of flux with implications for the built environment and technology in general that could be as profound as they are unpredictable.
The structure and make up of our buildings and cities have always been intensely political. The most visible of all human creations, they speak volumes about our abilities, our status and our values and our aspirations.
At least since the turn of the millennium there has been a tacit assumption that while technology is the great enabler, much of the change in the way our buildings and cities are designed and organised will be driven by social concerns, typically expressed through politics. In particular, the perception that the threat of climate change requires far-reaching action has led to a sustained series of targets, guidelines and regulations to increase both energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy, which naturally impacts on the built environment as one of the biggest consumers of energy.
Is this movement losing momentum? The financial crisis and recession affecting much of Europe, North America and some other parts of the developing world has proved to be the most prolonged since the 1930s. Even countries which appeared to escape the worst impact have since experienced either recession or a dramatic slowdown, including Australia, Canada and of course China.
With falling or stagnating production and rising government debt levels in so many countries, it is no surprise that finances and basic economics have come to the fore. Violent conflicts, especially in the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe, overflowing into other parts of the world and in turn fuelling mass movements of refugees and economic migration are also seizing attention in developed countries.
All of this has sometimes appeared to leave the “green agenda” on the back foot. Even in countries like Germany, Austria, Australia and New Zealand, where Green parties have attracted mass support and had a major influence on government, they have seemed to become more marginalised. Britain’s recent elections resulted in a new majority government which has very quickly moved to relax requirements on the energy efficiency of new buildings, and also to phase out subsidies for wind power.
While there is argument as to how far this is simply a question of means, and how much it represents a shift in priorities, there is little doubt that measures to improve energy efficiency or to promote the use of smart technology face an uphill path if they cannot provide a quick pay-back.
Where governments get involved in technology, it tends to be for old fashioned economic reasons. When mega-corporations like Microsoft, Apple, Google and Amazon have been in the spotlight it has mainly been because of accusations of anti-competitive practices or because of their tax policies. Rather less thought has been given to the ways in which companies like these could change the basic structure of society, the balance of power, and the environment.
Increasingly, these global brands interact directly with a global audience, influencing their behaviour, and in turn being influenced by them. It is no accident that Microsoft, Apple, Google and Amazon, having established themselves as consumer brands, are now active in the area of smart buildings, ranging from the smart home to, in Microsoft’s case, providing the data crunching to manage and optimise whole campuses.
Increasingly we can link these to wearable devices and to creators of virtual realities which could radically change our day to day activities and environment. Even the basic blocks from which buildings are made can have ‘smart’ properties, from ‘self-healing’ bricks to glass that responds dynamically to different levels of light.
With artificial intelligence already surpassing human intelligence in certain well defined areas – such as chess playing – questions are raised about how far the technology goes, who owns it, and how much power they will have. Even our homes and offices can study, learn and predict our habits and our preferences in ways that can be useful, but also potentially disturbing.
For over a hundred years there have been fears about the prospect of vital areas of technology being dominated by a single concern or perhaps a cabal of companies. So far, in practice, it has been innovation itself that has come to the rescue. Even the most nimble footed technology giants have been caught off-guard by new waves of technology, from IBM and Microsoft to Nokia. In the case of building technologies the requirements are particularly diverse and it is quite unusual to find a country where a single supplier accounts for more than 25%-30% of the market.
Nonetheless, we look to a future where corporations and, by implication, governments have access to information about almost every aspect of where we are, what we are doing, how we feel and what we want and fear. While your dishwasher probably doesn’t have a motivation to blackmail you, you can be less assured that it won’t soon have the evidence to do so.
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