Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is considered to be one of the oldest and finest examples of Byzantine and emerging Islamic architecture.
The shrine was built over a rock considered sacred by both Muslims and Jews. The Prophet Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven from the site, while in Jewish tradition, Abraham is believed to have prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the site.
An inscription establishes the date of completion of the Dome of the Rock as 691-692, having been built by the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik on the site of Herod’s Temple which was destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE.
The Byzantine Christian model of churches and martyriums was followed for the overall form of the architectural dome, as well as the decorative mosaics. This is combined with Quranic inscriptions that adorn the building, promoting the virtues of Islam over Christianity.
 Design and construction
The building is dominated by its large, wooden-gilt dome, approximately 20 m in diameter, and rising to a height of 30 m above the surrounding stone-paved platform. The dome’s shape symbolises the soaring ascent to heaven, and its circle represents the wholeness and balance that is essential to the Muslim faith.
The platform is supported by a circular arcade of four piers and twelve columns. An octagonal arcade surrounds this circle, comprising eight piers and sixteen columns, which help support the dome. The octagon is repeated in the outer wall, each of the eight sides measuring 18 m in width and 8 m in height.
The interior decorations are extensive and elaborate. There are 1,280 sq. m of intricate mosaics covering the walls from a variety of periods, as well as painted timber, marble, multi-coloured tiles, carpets and carved stone. The mosaics use intricate patterns and geometric shapes in place of figurative art.
The Dome of the Rock has been modified several times since it was completed in the 7th century, with each new group that conquered Jerusalem laying claim to the structure in its own way. In 1016, the original dome collapsed and was rebuilt in 1021.
In 1994, Jordan and Saudi Arabia donated 80 kg of gold to serve as a new covering for the iconic dome.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
The IHBC’s heritage business register HESPR emails members weekly ‘News and Tender Alerts’, and the IHBC Director’s top pick this week features a call from a Scottish authority for ‘creative(s)’ to deliver ‘community engagement projects’, closing 28 October.
Graffiti by Banksy has been taken off a bridge in Hull as the Grade II (GII) listed Scott Street bridge itself faces dismantling.
Liverpool landmark the Everton Library, a Grade II (GII) listed building that has been the focus of calls to restore it to its former glory continues to lie leaking, vandalised and derelict, when £5m could renovate the building, reports The Liverpool Echo.
A landmark on a list of the UK’s most endangered buildings, Shotton steelworks’ Grade II-listed general office and clock tower, is to be brought back to life in Flintshire.
Rochdale Borough Council writes: Over the past year the number of traders regularly attending the market has halved and it is not financially viable.
The Climate Heritage Network (CHN) Global Launch is a two-day program devoted to urgently mobilizing the cultural heritage sector for climate action across the globe.
A swing bridge that was designed by Brunel is to be ‘saved’ with a £62,000 grant from Historic England.
On September 13th the Victorian Society announced its Top 10 Endangered buildings list.
An Open Culture article takes a look at the American Cities of New York, Los Angeles and Detroit comparing how they look now compared to the 1930s and 1940s.
Great Yarmouth’s 91 year old Venetian Waterways has been re-opened to the public following a £2.7 million regeneration project.