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Last edited 25 Aug 2020
Coefficient of Performance CoP
The Coefficient of Performance (CoP) is a ratio that describes the efficiency of a system. It is based on the relationship between the power (kW) input to a system compared to the amount of power that is output.
The higher the number, the more efficient the system.
In the construction industry, the term CoP is often used in relation to equipment such as heat pumps. Heat pumps transfer heat from a lower temperature source to one of a higher temperature and can be used to provide hot water, space heating, or for other applications such as heating swimming pools.
The equation is expressed as follows:
CoP = Q/W
Typically a simple electric heater with no moving parts may convert 1 kW of electricity into 1 kW of heat, giving it a COP of 1. Whereas, a heat pump may convert 1 kW of electricity in 3 or 4 kW of heat, giving it a CoP of 3 or 4.
Rather than being generated by the pump, the heat is being moved from outside the structure to inside. The warmer the external heat source, the higher the CoP, and the less electricity required to convert it to heat output. This has advantages for the user over traditional heating systems as it significantly reduces carbon emissions and results in lower operating costs.
The CoP of a ground source heat pump is usually high because of the 'free' heat energy available from the ground through a series of buried pipes. Air source heat pumps draw in air from outside the building, and so the CoP can vary seasonally. In winter, the outside air is much colder so more electricity is required to raise the heat as required. The CoP will usually be relatively low, at around 2.5. In summer, the external air temperature is much warmer so less electricity is required, often resulting in a CoP of 4 or more.
The Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) value in cooling, and the Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) value in heating give an indication of anticipated real-life performance that takes into consideration these changes in energy efficiency over the course of a year.
CoP = Qc/W
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Absorption heat pump.
- Air source heat pumps.
- Combined heat and power CHP.
- Domestic heat pumps and the electricity supply system.
- Earth-to-air heat exchangers.
- Exhaust air heat pump.
- Ground source heat pumps.
- Heat exchanger.
- Heat pump.
- Heat recovery.
- Residential heat pump installations: the role of vocational education and training.
- Seasonal performance factor.
- Solar thermal heating.
- Types of domestic boiler.
- Underfloor heating.
- Water source heat pumps.
 External resources
- Hyperphysics - Heat pump
- Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide For Scotland, 2015 Edition v1.1, published by the Scottish Government, Building Standards Division in April 2018.
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