- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 31 Mar 2019
Clean Air Act and implications for the construction industry
The Clean Air Act (CAA) was introduced in 1956, as a result of the ‘great smog’ of 1952 which engulfed London for 5 days and is thought to have resulted in an additional 4,000 deaths compared to the number that would normally have occurred in the same period. The Act followed the 1954 Report of the Beaver Committee into Air Pollution and a subsequent smog in January 1956 which was reported to have caused a further 1,000 deaths.
In 1968, a revisions to the Act introduced a requirement for industry to use tall chimneys, in particular in relation to the emission of sulphur dioxide. It also introduced provisions relating to grit, dust and fumes from industrial premises.
‘Under the Clean Air Act 1993 local authorities may declare the whole or part of a district of the authority to be a smoke control area. It is an offence to emit smoke from a chimney of a building, from a furnace or from any fixed boiler if located in a designated smoke control area unless an authorised fuel was used. It is also an offence to acquire an ‘unauthorised fuel’ for use within a smoke control area unless it is used in an ‘exempt’ appliance (‘exempted’ from the controls which generally apply in the smoke control area). Authorised fuels are fuels which are authorised by Statutory Instruments (Regulations) made under the Clean Air Act 1993. These include inherently smokeless fuels such as gas, electricity and anthracite together with specified brands of manufactured solid smokeless fuels. These fuels have passed tests to confirm that they are capable of burning in an open fireplace without producing smoke. Exempt appliances are appliances (ovens, wood burners, boilers and stoves) which have been exempted by Statutory Instruments (Orders) under the Clean Air Act 1993. These have passed tests to confirm that they are capable of burning an unauthorised or inherently smoky solid fuel without emitting smoke.'
Fines of up to £1,000 can be imposed for non-compliance.
The Act also contains provisions relating to:
- Installation of furnaces
- Limits on rate of emission of grit and dust.
- Arrestment plant for furnaces.
- Measurement of grit, dust and fumes.
- Outdoor furnaces.
- Height of chimneys.
- Smoke nuisances in Scotland.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Approved Document J.
- Chimney definition.
- Combustion appliance.
- Contaminated land.
- Deleterious materials.
- Draught diverter v draught stabiliser.
- Environmental legislation for building design and construction.
- Environmental Protection Act.
- Fireplace recess.
- Flame technology.
- Methane and other gasses from the ground.
- Testing solid fuel stoves.
Featured articles and news
A quick introduction to a very complicated subject.
CIOB suggests the economic reach of construction is double the official figures.
The first US building to achieve BREEAM Outstanding In-Use.
70 buildings from 70 years of Concrete Quarterly. Book review.
Conserving the iron roof at the Albert Dock.
Delivering an infrastructure revolution.
The admissibility of evidence.
How many can you name? 37 anyone?
CIOB respond to the points-based system.
When is the weather considered 'exceptionally adverse'?
ECA backs call for a rolling programme of rail electrification.