- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
- Specialist wikis
Last edited 02 Nov 2023
City Cluster, City of London
- "Drawings like this one from an intermediate planning and design report suggested that the tower would enhance the skyline by completing the “cluster” of towers in the City’s northeastern quadrant."
- (Foster + Partners)
"The City Cluster comprises an ever densifying and expanding part of the City of London, as evidenced by the ongoing construction of tall architectural towers and an increasing working population which provides a demanding audience on the historic streets and spaces of the Cluster. The public realm must respond to these demands and pressures to enable economic growth and maintain and extend the reputation and attractiveness of the Cluster as a global leader in financial services and reaffirm itself as a destination, both as a workplace and as a cultural attraction beyond the working day. Against this changing backdrop, the public realm must have not only the capacity to accommodate change but also predict and encourage new uses in support of the wider ambitions of the area."
 A International Financial Centre
Construction period: 1971-1980
Architect: Richard Seifert
 B 99-101 Bishopsgate
Construction period: 1976-1995
Construction period: 2001-2004
Architect: Norman Foster
 D Commercial Union
Construction period: 1992-2003
Architect: Gollins Melvin Ward Partnership
 E Deutsche Bank
Construction period: 1995-1996
Architect: Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
Accommodation: in use 1972-2004
Construction period: c1972
Accommodation: Office space
Construction period: 1970-present
Architect: Fletcher Priest Architects LLP
Construction period: c1967 - demolished 2007
Architect: Richard Seifert
 J Lloyd's
Accommodation: Office space
Construction period: 1981-1986
 K Dresdner Kleinwort Benson
Construction period: Demolished 2007
 L Barclays, Lombard St.
"We came to the conclusion that in order to have a fully credible financial centre it was necessary to have a fairly complete set of capabilities. Such a complete set within a financial centre’s community is an enabler of innovation. If one piece of iconic infrastructure were missing, the perception of the power of the centre would be significantly diminished. If, therefore, London were to lose several of its major infrastructure providers (say the LSE and LCH.Clearnet), this would undoubtedly have a damaging effect not only upon the credibility of London as Europe’s main financial centre, but also on its overall capacity to support that position."
Cox, P. and Jones, L. (2008) 'The Competitive Impact of London's Financial Market Infrastructure', p.46
• City of London predicted skyline by 2030, with the 11 new towers expected to be built: 1) 2-3 Finsbury Avenue; 2) 6-8 Bishopsgate; 3: 1 Leadenhall Street; 4) 1 Undershaft; 5) 100 Leadenhall Street; 6) 40 Leadenhall Street; 7) 70 Gracechurch Street; 8) 55 Gracechurch Street; 9) 50 Fenchurch Street; 10) 85 Gracechurch Street; 11) 55 Bishopsgate. Photograph: City of London/GMJ
- 30 St. Mary Axe.
- After the Fire: London churches in the age of Wren, Hooke, Hawksmoor and Gibbs.
- City Cluster, Kit of Parts.
- Coal holes, pavement lights, kerbs and utilities and wood-block paving.
- Historic building.
- IHBC articles.
- Lloyd's of London.
- NatWest Tower.
- Nikolaus Pevsner.
- Sir Christopher Wren.
- Stuart architecture.
- The Livery Halls of the City of London.
- The Institute of Historic Building Conservation.
- The Rebuilding Acts.
- Worshipful Company of Constructors.
Cox, P. and Jones, L. (2008) 'The Competitive Impact of London's Financial Market Infrastructure', City of London
 Further Reading
Kaika, M. (2010) 'Architecture and Crisis: Re-inventing the Icon, Re-imag(in)ing London and Re-branding the City', ResearchGate
Kollewe, J. (2023) 'London financial district to have 11 more towers by 2030', The Guardian, 2 November
Massey, J. (2013) 'The Gherkin: How London's Famous Tower Leveraged Risk and Became an Icon', archdaily, 5 November
Massey, J. (2013) 'The Gherkin: How London’s Famous Tower Leveraged Risk and Became an Icon (Part 2)', archdaily, 12 November
Massey, J. (2013) 'The Gherkin: How London’s Famous Tower Leveraged Risk and Became an Icon (Part 3)', archdaily, 19 November
Massey, J. (2013) 'The Gherkin: How London’s Famous Tower Leveraged Risk and Became an Icon (Part 4)', archdaily, 26 November
Wainwright, O. and Elmanu, M. (2015) 'A tortured heap of towers': the London Skyline of tomorrow', The Guardian, 11 December
--Archiblog 12:00, 24 Jan 2023 (BST)
Disclaimer:— This article does not reflect the views of the author.
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