Last edited 24 Mar 2021

Avoiding the landfill tax by embracing the circular economy


[edit] Introduction

Following an estimation in 2008, that the construction and demolition industry was responsible for 25 million tons of landfill waste – just in England – the government took action. One of the key targets of the Government’s Strategy for Sustainable Construction was to cut this figure in half by 2012.

A landfill tax escalator was put in place to speed up progress towards this goal, with an annual increase of £8 per ton from 2011 until 2014.

In April 2015’s budget the landfill tax increase was in line with inflation, going up by £2.60 – with the standard rate rising from £80 per tonne to £82.60 per tonne. There are still two landfill tax rates. The lower one, which applies to less polluting waste, including bricks, stone and concrete with small amounts of wood and plaster, went up this April by just 10p, from £2.50 to £2.60.

Despite an increase in standard rates, landfill sites are reaching capacity – with the construction industry picking up pace, a new approach is needed. This article considers whether the concept of the circular economy could help avoid the impact of landfill tax increases.

[edit] Rethinking construction waste

In 2008 a new target was set by the EU Waste Framework Directive (WFD) that 70% of construction, demolition and excavation waste should be recycled by 2020.

This has resulted in the industry beginning to think differently:

This encourages a more positive attitude towards reusing materials.

[edit] The circular economy – inspired by nature

A shift in attitudes towards waste has increased awareness in the industry of a philosophy known as the circular economy.

The core principles include:

  • Minimising the volume of waste created by taking a longer-term view.
  • Focusing on ways of harnessing the innate value of the waste that is generated.

Where before, the industry would simply dispose of materials when they were finished with them, it now asks: if something can’t be reused as it is, can it be recycled? Alternatively, can it be used as a resource or fuel to produce energy? This reflects the way the natural world works, with a web of interconnecting product lifecycles and nothing ultimately going to waste.

[edit] Economic benefits

Looking at the bigger picture, applying the circular approach to a waste strategy, can not only save money in landfill taxes, but can offer wider financial benefits.

A few examples of ideas that can be implemented include:

[edit] Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki

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