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Last edited 19 Mar 2018
Very broadly, foundations can be categorised as shallow foundations or deep foundations. Shallow foundations are typically used where the loads imposed by a structure are low relative to the bearing capacity of the surface soils. Deep foundations are necessary where the bearing capacity of the surface soils is not adequate to support the loads imposed by a structure and so they need to be transferred to deeper layers with higher bearing capacity.
Strip foundations (or strip footings) are a type of shallow foundation that are used to provide a continuous, level (or sometimes stepped) strip of support to a linear structure such as a wall or closely-spaced rows of columns built centrally above them.
Strip foundations can be used for most subsoils, but are most suitable for soil which is of relatively good bearing capacity. They are particularly suited to light structural loadings such as those found in many low-to-medium rise domestic buildings - where mass concrete strip foundations can be used. In other situations, reinforced concrete may be required.
Older buildings may have brick strip foundations.
Very broadly, the size and position of strip foundations is typically related to the wall’s overall width. The depth a traditional strip foundation is generally equal to or greater than the overall wall width, and the foundation width is generally three times the width of the supported wall. This results in the load being transmitted at 45º from the wall base to the soil.
Approved document A of Building Regulations defines minimum widths for strip footings based on the type of ground and load-bearing wall, although it is generally advisable to consult a structural engineer when designing foundations.
The underside of strip foundations should be deep enough to avoid frost action; for example, at least 450 mm unless they are bearing on rock, and at least 1 m on high shrinkage clays.
Where ground conditions are poor, settlement is likely, or where it may be impractical to create individual strip or pad foundations for a large number of individual loads, raft foundations may be used. See Raft foundations for more information.
Where the bearing capacity of the surface soils is not adequate to support the loads imposed by the structure, deep foundations such as pile foundations may be used. See Pile foundations for more information.
Larger or more complex buildings may involve the use of a number of different types of foundation.
Additional guidance is available in BRE's Simple foundations for low-rise housing: 'rule of thumb' design.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Approved Document A.
- Bearing capacity.
- Brick strip foundation.
- Building foundations.
- Compensated foundation.
- Driven piles.
- How deep should foundations be?
- How to design a pad foundation.
- How to lay bricks.
- Pad foundation.
- Pile foundations.
- Raft foundation.
- Rubble trench foundation.
- Screw pile foundations.
- Stepped foundation.
- Trench fill foundation.
- Types of pad foundation.
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