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Last edited 28 Jun 2018
Typically, subsoil consists of the same variable mixture of minerals and small particles (e.g. sand, silt, clay) as the topsoil, but it has a much lower percentage of organic matter and humus (fine organic matter derived from the decomposition of plant and animal substances).
Subsoil tends to be paler than its overlying topsoil due to the lack of dark humus, and varies in colour from red to yellow.
The macro- and microscopic organisms that proliferate in topsoil are mostly lacking in the subsoil, although it may contain the deeper roots of some plants and trees. Water run-off results in minerals from the topsoil migrating down into the subsoil which can lead to mineral deficiencies in the topsoil. The knock-on effect of this is that roots have to dig deeper for nutrients.
Beneath the subsoil is the substratum - a layer of residual bedrock, sediments or deposits.
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