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Last edited 07 Oct 2022
Geology, also called geo or earth sciences, is the study of the structure, evolution and dynamics of the Earth, its natural mineral and energy resources from its start 4,500million years ago. It includes both the liquid and solid elements of the body of Earth, the rocks that make it up and the processes by which it and they change over time. The definition of geology might also include the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite of the Earth such as Mars or the Moon.
Geology covers a broad area of connected studies such as geochemistry, geochronology, geomorphology, geophysics, hydrology, geological engineering and environmental geology. It also touches on subjects areas such as hydrology, volcanology, lithology, petrology, glaciology and so on.
The founder of modern geology is widely considered to be James Hutton (1726–1797), a Scottish farmer and naturalist. An observer and examiner of rocks, he recognised that the history of the Earth could be determined by understanding how processes such as erosion and sedimentation work in the present day. He perceived that sedimentation takes place so slowly that the oldest rocks are made up of “materials furnished from the ruins of former continents” and the reverse process occurs when rock exposed to the atmosphere erodes and decays. He called this coupling of destruction and renewal the “great geological cycle” that had been completed innumerable times. His ideas and approach established geology as a science.
- Conservation areas.
- Designated land.
- Designated areas.
- Earth heritage.
- Geological periods.
- National parks.
- Site of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI).
- Sites of Special Scientific Interest.
- Special areas of conservation.
- Special protection areas.
- Types of rock.
- Types of soil.
- Types of land.
- World heritage site.
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