- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 11 Nov 2020
Absorption refrigeration in buildings
- For heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
- To provide cooling for refrigeration.
- To provide cooling for industrial processes.
Absorption and compression refrigeration both work on a similar basis, in that a refrigerant boils at a low temperature and pressure, and is then is then pressurised, and condensed at a higher temperature and pressure. The process of condensing releases heat which is rejected.
In ‘conventional’ compression systems, a liquid refrigerant with a low boiling point absorbs heat from the body that is being cooled and boils in an evaporator to form a gas. The resulting gas is then compressed, which increases its temperature further. The gas is then condensed, releasing its latent heat which is rejected. The process then repeats.
However, whilst in compression refrigeration, the compression and refrigerant flow is achieved by an electrical compressor, in absorption refrigeration, compression is achieved by heating, and circulation is achieved absorbing the refrigerant into and absorber and by an electrical pump. This pump uses much less energy than a compressor.
The liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the body that is to be cooled (in buildings this may be water that once cool is circulated back to the building) and the refrigerant evaporates at low pressure (in the ‘evaporator’). It is then absorbed into an absorber fluid and the refrigerant / absorber mixture is heated (in the ‘generator’). The refrigerant evaporates again, this time at higher temperature and pressure. The refrigerant is then condensed (in the ‘condenser’) and the heat rejected. The process is then repeated.
The heat in absorption refrigeration can be gas powered, but absorption refrigeration is particularly suited to situations where ‘waste’, or other low-cost heat supply is available, such as; surplus heat from combined heat and power plant (CHP), heat from industrial processes, district heating, geothermal or solar thermal energy and so on.
Absorption refrigeration was first developed in France in 1850’s, but it was not commercially exploited until the 1920’s.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Absorption heat pump.
- Air conditioning.
- Air handling unit.
- BREEAM Impact of refrigerants.
- Chilled beam.
- Chiller unit.
- Chilled water.
- Compression refrigeration.
- Constant air volume.
- Evaporative cooling.
- Fan coil unit.
- Heat pumps
- Passive building design.
- Variable air volume.
- Variable refrigerant flow.
 External references
Featured articles and news
Reviewing trends and projections.
Legislation will establish initiatives to move towards net zero.
How to document contractor employment status.
Tech tools to help manage people and space post-pandemic.
A style that ranges from mock Tudor to arts and crafts to the 'Wrenaissance'.
Free guide from Secured by Design.
BREEAM strategy for sustainability and the circular economy.
Free tool to improve the construction programming process.
Are buildings doing what they're supposed to be doing?
Cities with quick access to everything by foot or bike.
The pressures and pinch points of global destinations.
Making the case for a sustainable future.
Retrofit professionals now entitled to enter CIOB programme.
How, where, when and why stereotypes happen.