- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 21 May 2019
Hardwoods are one of the most common types of wood used in manufacturing; everything from oak furniture to a mahogany mantelpiece are constructed with the hardwood. But what makes hardwood so special, and why is it different to traditional softwoods?
What are hardwoods?
One reason hardwoods are known as hardwoods is because they tend to grow a lot more slowly than other types of trees, which results in the trunk, bark, and branches becoming denser, which can be a great benefit for carpenters and people that use wood on a regular basis.
Because of the increased density of the tree, the wood is more 'heavy duty' than its soft counterparts, which is why it is typically used in furniture such as tables, chairs, chest drawers, and so on.
Traditional hardwoods, such as oak, can show annual growth rings, meaning that carpenters and tree enthusiasts can determine how old certain types of wood are, and that can determine various important characteristics of the wood. For example, the more rings there are, the denser it will be, meaning that it is a much higher quality hardwood compared to one that has very few rings.
Applications of hardwoods
Hardwoods have a wide range of applications, being used for fuel, tools, furniture, flooring, barrels, and the manufacturing of charcoal. The important thing is that, because hardwoods take longer to develop, they are more expensive, which is why they aren’t used as much as softwoods in industries, such as construction.
Hardwoods also have a complex structure, meaning they can produce beautiful features on the wood itself. For example, if you cut a hardwood tree horizontally, you will notice the annual growth rings, but, if you cut a hardwood tree vertically, you will notice the lines that run along the wood that is formed from the xylem tubes; this is known as the grain.
Because of its complex nature, unusual structures can form easily within the wood, such as extra branches protruding out of the wood. When the wood is cut, round ovals of darker wood can be seen, which are known as knots.
However, knots can actually weaken the structure of the wood itself, so it is important to make sure that you use wood with little knots for uses that require wood’s strength. For furniture items, strength isn’t a necessity, because people tend to focus more on the aesthetics of the wood, and it can definitely be said that hardwood with knots looks more aesthetically pleasing than plain hardwood.
--G&S Specialist Timber 09:11, 16 Feb 2017 (BST)
Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- 11 things you didn't know about wood.
- Ancient Woodland.
- Birch wood.
- Cross-laminated timber.
- Definition of tree for planning purposes.
- Engineered bamboo.
- Laminated veneer lumber LVL.
- Modified wood.
- Natural materials.
- Padauk wood.
- Physical Properties of Wood.
- Recognising wood rot and insect damage in buildings.
- Sustainably procuring tropical hardwood.
- Testing timber.
- The Differences Between Engineered Flooring and Solid Hardwood Flooring.
- The differences between hardwood and softwood.
- Timber construction for London.
- Timber framed buildings and fire.
- Timber preservation.
- Timber vs wood.
- Types of timber.
- Wrot timber.
Featured articles and news
Exploring local assets of community significance. Book review.
Wood-burning stoves should not be used in thatch-roofed buildings.
Servitisation, smart systems and connectivity.
What happens to the Construction Products Regulation if there is no Brexit deal.
The first step to long-term prosperity.
The status and rights of employees in construction
Continuing to share environmental best practice
The employee assistance programme EAP
HMRC's Construction Industry Scheme
What 'net-zero emissions' means for civil engineers
The meaning of Rw and Dw/DnTw