- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 28 Dec 2017
Types of fuel
- Substances that react with other proximate substances to release energy, through the process of combustion, are known as chemical fuels. These are divided both by their physical properties (as a solid, liquid, or gas), and by how they occur (as a primary or natural fuel, or as a secondary or artificial fuel).
- Substances that can release nuclear energy by fission or fusion, are known as nuclear fuels.
- Wood: Includes firewood, charcoal, woodchips, pellets, sawdust, and so on.
- Charcoal: Produced by heating wood in the absence of oxygen.
- Biomass: Natural plant materials, such as wheat, straw and other fibrous material.
- Peat: Organic matter and decayed vegetation that can be burned when dry.
- Coal: Combustible sedimentary rock.
- Coke: High-carbon material derived from coal.
- Waste: Everyday waste can be converted to a fuel source as long as it does not contain toxic materials.
- Gasoline/petrol: Produced by removing crude oil from petroleum and distilling it in refineries.
- Diesel: A mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum, and processed to reduce the sulphur level.
- Kerosene: Extracted from petroleum.
 Natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas
The most common types of alcohol fuels are:
- Methanol: Produced from methane, methanol is the lightest and simplest form of alcohol.
- Ethanol: Most commonly found in drinks, but can be combined with gasoline for use as a fuel.
- Butanol: Usually produced by fermenting biomass using bacteria, butanol has a high energy content.
Gaseous fuels are distributed through pipes from point of origin to point of use, although some are liquefied for storage. Odorisers are often added to fuel gases so that they can be detected, since an undetected build up of gas can lead to an explosion.
- Coal gas: Derived from coal.
- Water gas: A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthetic gas.
- Syngas: Synthetic gas consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and often carbon dioxide.
- Biogas: A mixture of gases derived from organic matter breaking down in the absence of oxygen.
- Blast furnace gas: Derived from the manufacture of metallic iron in blast furnaces.
 Calorific values of fuels
The calorific value of a fuel is the total energy released as heat when the substance undergoes combustion. In 2015, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy published updated data on the average calorific values of fuels.
|FUEL||GJ PER TONNE (NET)||GJ PER TONNE (GROSS)|
|Butane and propane (LPG)||46||49.3|
For the full list, see Gov.uk.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
Featured articles and news
The Isle of Man’s naturally-occurring materials and distinctive building techniques.
BRE partner with Global GreenTag to develop an Ethical Labour Sourcing Standard for Australia.
The Chartered Quality Institute explain the pathway to success for organisations implementing management systems.
An introductory article looking at where a duty of care can arise in the construction industry.
House of Lords committee encourages the use of off-site manufacturing in new report.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can go some way to show the impact of new buildings on their surroundings.
The shortlist for the 2018 prize for the UK's best new building is revealed.
Amendment to Bill aims to provide councils with greater powers to increase tax premiums on empty homes.
As the latest summer blockbuster 'Skyscraper' is released, we look at some of the best uses of buildings in film.
Read our introductory article on how to layout a building.