Types of fuel
- Substances that react with other proximate substances to release energy, through the process of combustion, are known as chemical fuels. These are divided both by their physical properties (as a solid, liquid, or gas), and by how they occur (as a primary or natural fuel, or as a secondary or artificial fuel).
- Substances that can release nuclear energy by fission or fusion, are known as nuclear fuels.
- Wood: Includes firewood, charcoal, woodchips, pellets, sawdust, and so on.
- Charcoal: Produced by heating wood in the absence of oxygen.
- Biomass: Natural plant materials, such as wheat, straw and other fibrous material.
- Peat: Organic matter and decayed vegetation that can be burned when dry.
- Coal: Combustible sedimentary rock.
- Coke: High-carbon material derived from coal.
- Waste: Everyday waste can be converted to a fuel source as long as it does not contain toxic materials.
NB on 1 May 2021, restrictions were introduced on the sale of coal and wet wood as a domestic fuel in the UK. Ref https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-on-sale-of-coal-and-wet-wood-for-home-burning-begin
- Gasoline/petrol: Produced by removing crude oil from petroleum and distilling it in refineries.
- Diesel: A mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum, and processed to reduce the sulphur level.
- Kerosene: Extracted from petroleum.
 Natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas
- Methanol: Produced from methane, methanol is the lightest and simplest form of alcohol.
- Ethanol: Most commonly found in drinks, but can be combined with gasoline for use as a fuel.
- Butanol: Usually produced by fermenting biomass using bacteria, butanol has a high energy content.
‘Hydrocarbon liquid fuels produced synthesising hydrogen from water, carbon dioxide and electricity. They can be zero-carbon if the electricity input is zero-carbon and the CO2 from direct air capture.' ref Making Mission Possible - Delivering A Net-Zero Economy, published by the Energy Transitions Commission (ETC) in September 2020.
Gaseous fuels are distributed through pipes from point of origin to point of use, although some are liquefied for storage. Odorisers are often added to fuel gases so that they can be detected, since an undetected build up of gas can lead to an explosion.
- Coal gas: Derived from coal.
- Water gas: A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthetic gas.
- Syngas: Synthetic gas consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and often carbon dioxide.
- Biogas: A mixture of gases derived from organic matter breaking down in the absence of oxygen.
- Blast furnace gas: Derived from the manufacture of metallic iron in blast furnaces.
 Calorific values of fuels
The calorific value of a fuel is the total energy released as heat when the substance undergoes combustion. In 2015, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy published updated data on the average calorific values of fuels.
|FUEL||GJ PER TONNE (NET)||GJ PER TONNE (GROSS)|
|Butane and propane (LPG)||46||49.3|
(For the full list see Gov.uk.)
See also: Heating fuel.
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Energy consumption.
- Energy storage.
- Fossil fuel.
- Fuel cell.
- Fuel mix disclosure.
- Heating fuel.
- Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
- Mains gas.
- Natural gas.
- Power generation.
- Red diesel.
- Refinery fuels.
- Renewable energy.
- Shale gas.
- Types of fuel cells.
- Wood pellet mill basics.
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