Types of fuel
- Substances that react with other proximate substances to release energy, through the process of combustion, are known as chemical fuels. These are divided both by their physical properties (as a solid, liquid, or gas), and by how they occur (as a primary or natural fuel, or as a secondary or artificial fuel).
- Substances that can release nuclear energy by fission or fusion, are known as nuclear fuels.
- Wood: Includes firewood, charcoal, woodchips, pellets, sawdust, and so on.
- Charcoal: Produced by heating wood in the absence of oxygen.
- Biomass: Natural plant materials, such as wheat, straw and other fibrous material.
- Peat: Organic matter and decayed vegetation that can be burned when dry.
- Coal: Combustible sedimentary rock.
- Coke: High-carbon material derived from coal.
- Waste: Everyday waste can be converted to a fuel source as long as it does not contain toxic materials.
NB on 1 May 2021, restrictions were introduced on the sale of coal and wet wood as a domestic fuel in the UK. Ref https://www.gov.uk/government/news/restrictions-on-sale-of-coal-and-wet-wood-for-home-burning-begin
- Gasoline/petrol: Produced by removing crude oil from petroleum and distilling it in refineries.
- Diesel: A mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons extracted from petroleum, and processed to reduce the sulphur level.
- Kerosene: Extracted from petroleum.
 Natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas
- Methanol: Produced from methane, methanol is the lightest and simplest form of alcohol.
- Ethanol: Most commonly found in drinks, but can be combined with gasoline for use as a fuel.
- Butanol: Usually produced by fermenting biomass using bacteria, butanol has a high energy content.
‘Hydrocarbon liquid fuels produced synthesising hydrogen from water, carbon dioxide and electricity. They can be zero-carbon if the electricity input is zero-carbon and the CO2 from direct air capture.' ref Making Mission Possible - Delivering A Net-Zero Economy, published by the Energy Transitions Commission (ETC) in September 2020.
Gaseous fuels are distributed through pipes from point of origin to point of use, although some are liquefied for storage. Odorisers are often added to fuel gases so that they can be detected, since an undetected build up of gas can lead to an explosion.
- Coal gas: Derived from coal.
- Water gas: A mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthetic gas.
- Syngas: Synthetic gas consisting of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and often carbon dioxide.
- Biogas: A mixture of gases derived from organic matter breaking down in the absence of oxygen.
- Blast furnace gas: Derived from the manufacture of metallic iron in blast furnaces.
 Calorific values of fuels
The calorific value of a fuel is the total energy released as heat when the substance undergoes combustion. In 2015, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy published updated data on the average calorific values of fuels.
|FUEL||GJ PER TONNE (NET)||GJ PER TONNE (GROSS)|
|Butane and propane (LPG)||46||49.3|
(For the full list see Gov.uk.)
See also: Heating fuel.
- Energy consumption.
- Energy price crisis: ECA calls for energy levy reform.
- Energy storage.
- Fossil fuel.
- Fuel cell.
- Fuel mix disclosure.
- Heating fuel.
- Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).
- Mains gas.
- Natural gas.
- Power generation.
- Red diesel.
- Refinery fuels.
- Renewable energy.
- Shale gas.
- Types of fuel cells.
- Wood pellet mill basics.
An ‘All-Island’ commitment to Ireland’s vernacular heritage has been established with the signing of the North South Agreement on Vernacular Heritage, supporting traditional buildings etc.
Canons House, a landmark building on Bristol Harbourside, has been awarded Grade II (GII) listed status having been built as a regional headquarters for Lloyds Bank between 1988 and 1991 (Arup)
The Building Research Establishment (BRE) has announced a new project with the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to improve and modernise the home energy rating scheme used to measure the energy and environmental performance of UK homes.
Sector lead the Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) has recognised the IHBC’s professional accreditation and support (CPD etc.) in awarding its PQP (Professionally Qualified Person) cards.
The IHBC’s 2022 Aberdeen School Heritage MarketPlace (4.30-7.30PM, 15 June) is designed to extend the scope of a traditional IHBC School exhibition floor.
Work to repair a fire-hit medieval hotel in Gloucester is underway as crews have started work to strip back some of the modern trappings and reveal the historic framework.
Options for in-person and virtual delegates to explore ‘heritage on the edge’ across up to 4 days of IHBC engagement & learning.
The Secretariat to the European Heritage Heads Forum has has coordinated its declaration of solidarity and support for Ukraine’s cultural heritage institutions.
2022 will see the IHBC mark a quarter of a century since our incorporation as a professional body supporting and accrediting built and historic environment conservation specialists. We’re kick-starting it by inviting your ideas on how to mark this special year!
The IHBC’s latest Guidance Note adds to the institute’s open-access, online practitioner’s Toolbox.