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Last edited 19 Aug 2021
Environmental Archaeology, A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Methods, from Sampling and Recovery to Post-excavation (second edition), published by English Heritage (now Historic England) in 2011, defines a C4 plant as: ‘…a plant that produces oxyaloacetic acid, which contains four carbon atoms, as the first step in photosynthesis. C4 plants can photosynthesize at higher light levels and lower carbon-dioxide levels than C3 plants. Many desert plants and some tropical plants are C4 plants.’
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