Waste hierarchy for construction
Businesses and other organisations within the UK produce significant amounts of waste. In particular, the UK construction industry is the largest consumer of resources, requiring more than 400 million tonnes of material a year (ref Davis Langdon). 32% of landfill waste comes from the construction and demolition of buildings and 13% of products delivered to construction sites are sent directly to landfill without being used (ref Technology Strategy Board).
The waste hierarchy sets out a set of priorities that are based on sustainability with an order of preference for actions to reduce and manage waste. The overall aim of the hierarchy is to generate the minimum waste possible by using every material in every way possible. The most preferable option is 'prevention', at the top of the hierarchy with the least preferable 'disposal' at the bottom.
The waste hierarchy illustrated below is from the Defra 2011 publication, Guidance on applying the waste hierarchy which provides advice on the application of the waste hierarchy for businesses and public bodies.
The European Union's Waste Framework Directive (WFD Directive 2008/98/EC) introduced the five-step waste hierarchy system which must be implemented by all member states.
All businesses or public bodies that produce or handle waste must apply the waste hierarchy system and try to prevent the generation of waste wherever possible. In addition, if the business is involved in the production, import, export, carrying, keeping, treatment or disposal of waste, or as a broker in control of such waste, there is a legal duty of care to take all reasonable steps to keep that waste safe. If waste is transferred to someone else, there is a duty of care to ensure they are authorised to take it and can deal with it or dispose of it safely.
There are many ways a business or public body can reduce or prevent the generation of waste, including:
- Reduction of food waste.
- Reduction of packaging.
- Care in handling.
- Use of less material in manufacturing.
- Re-use of surplus material by other organisations.
- Sell/donate/swap unwanted items.
- Repair and retain items rather than purchasing new ones.
- Hire or lease items.
- Re-use containers.
In construction, a site waste management plan (SWMP) can be prepared before construction begins, describing how materials will be managed efficiently and disposed of legally during the construction of the works, and explaining how the re-use and recycling of materials will be maximised.
Specific construction guidance is also available at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/category/sector/construction
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki.
- Bin blight.
- Circular economy.
- Environmental plan.
- Mean lean green.
- Recyclable construction materials.
- Site waste management plan.
- UandI Think event with Studio SWINE.
- Waste management plan for England.
 External references
Featured articles and news
What are the issues and techniques involved in assessing the risk of fire in historic buildings?
Have a look at this award-winning folded plate roof for Vienna's train station.
What is a residual valuation of land and what does it involve? Have a look at our introductory article.
What will be needed to manage and plan Hinkley Point C successfully?
BSRIA publish new Topic Guide on the issues surrounding Brexit.
Around 6,000 elephants were involved in the construction of the world's largest religious monument, Angkor Wat.
Government publishes new guidance document for landlords about the April 2018 changes.
ICE publish new briefing sheet on municipal energy transmission, retailing, and legislation.
CIOB awards include origami floor joists and BIM MOOC (Massive Open Online Course).
The first CIC briefing of 2017 covered a construction economic forecast, illegal migrant workers, and a Crossrail 2 update.
This spherical house in Vienna is considered a micro-nation - the Republic of Kugelmugel.