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Last edited 20 Dec 2021
Climate Change 2021, The Physical Science Basis, published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2021, defines radiative forcing as: ‘The change in the net, downward minus upward, radiative flux (expressed in W m-2) due to a change in an external driver of climate change, such as a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), the concentration of volcanic aerosols or in the output of the Sun. The stratospherically adjusted radiative forcing is computed with all tropospheric properties held fixed at their unperturbed values, and after allowing for stratospheric temperatures, if perturbed, to readjust to radiative-dynamical equilibrium. Radiative forcing is called instantaneous if no change in stratospheric temperature is accounted for. The radiative forcing once both stratospheric and tropospheric adjustments are accounted for is termed the effective radiative forcing.’
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