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Last edited 20 Dec 2021
Climate Change 2021, The Physical Science Basis, published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2021, defines the radiative effect as: ‘The impact on a radiation flux or heating rate (most commonly, on the downward flux at the top of atmosphere) caused by the interaction of a particular constituent with either the infrared or solar radiation fields through absorption, scattering and emission, relative to an otherwise identical atmosphere free of that constituent. This quantifies the impact of the constituent on the climate system. Examples include the aerosol-radiation interactions, cloud radiative effect, and greenhouse effect. In this report, the portion of any top-of-atmosphere radiative effect that is due to anthropogenic or other external influences (e.g., volcanic eruptions or changes in the sun) is termed the instantaneous radiative forcing.’
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