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Last edited 31 Dec 2021
UK Concrete and Cement Industry, Roadmap to Beyond Net Zero, published by MPA UK Concrete in 2020, defines process emissions in cement manufacture as: ‘…the carbon dioxide emitted from the breakdown of limestone raw materials when exposed to high temperature during the calcination process of clinker manufacture. During calcination carbon dioxide separates from the calcium carbonate (limestone) when it is heated to around 900°C.’
Redefining value, The manufacturing revolution, Remanufacturing, refurbishment, repair and direct reuse in the circular economy, published by the United Nations Environment Programme in 2018, suggests that process emissions refer to: ‘…the carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas equivalent emissions emitted during the OEM (original equipment manufacturer) New and/or value-retention process production activities. Modeling of process emissions is based on process energy (MJ/unit), converted using economy specific Global Warming Potential (GWP) 100a factors to account for grid mix of the producing economy.’
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