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Last edited 13 Sep 2021
Culvert, screen and outfall manual, (CIRIA C786) published by CIRIA in 2019, defines backflow as: ‘Flow in a culvert or drain in the opposite direction to the normal flow direction as a result of a high downstream water level (most often experienced in tidal waters.’
Water safety in buildings, published by the World Health Organization in 2011, defines backflow as: ‘The unintended reverse flow of water or other substances into distribution pipes of drinking-water from an unintended source that is capable of polluting the drinking-water.’
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