- Project plans
- Project activities
- Legislation and standards
- Industry context
Last edited 26 Jun 2018
Net Present Value
NRM3: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for building maintenance works, defines 'present value' as '...the cost or benefit in the future discounted back to some base date, usually the present day, at a given compound interest rate'.
The term ‘Net Present Value’ (NPV) represents the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows for an investment. It is used when considering capital investments to assess profitability.
For an investment to be worthwhile it has to yield a positive NPV, meaning that profit will be generated over time as a result of the investment. A negative NPV indicates that the investment is likely to lose money. Like any other business investment, property development will aim to yield a positive NPV that is greater than would have been achieved if capital was invested elsewhere.
NRM3 suggests that:
|NPV is a standard measure in LCC (life cycle cost) analyses, used to determine and compare the cost effectiveness of proposed solutions. It can be applied across the full range of construction investments, covering whole investment programmes, assets, systems, components and operating and maintenance models.The costs and revenues/benefits to be included in each analysis are defined according to its objectives. For example, revenues from recycling of materials or from surplus energy generation are typically included in LCC analysis of alternative sustainability options.|
The formula for calculating NPV is as follows:
- Ct = net cash inflow during the period ‘t’
- Co = total initial investment costs
- r = discount rate
- t = number of time periods
- End of year 1 = £120,000.
- End of year 2 = £250,000.
- End of year 3 = £550,000.
- End of year 4 = £1.3m.
NPV = £2.22m – £1.7m
NPV = £520,000
Discounting is a way of comparing the value of costs and benefits over different time periods relative to their present values. Money is worth less in the future than it is in the present because of its reduced capacity for generating a return, such as interest, and because of inflation. Discounting is a means of assessing how much less an amount is worth in the future than it is now.
(Y1) £114,285.70 + (Y2) £226,757.37 + (Y3) £475,110.68 + (Y4) £1,069,513.22
NPV = £1,885,666.97
NPV = 1,885,666.97 – £1.7m
NPV = £185,666.97
(Y1) £109,090.91 + (Y2) £206,611.57 + (Y3) £413,223.14 + (Y4) £887,917.49
NPV = £1,616,843.11
NPV = £1,616,843.11 – £1.7m
NPV = -£83,156.89
In this scenario there appears not to be economic justification for the project to go ahead.
- Estimated cash flows seldom match those experienced in practice.
- Given the incremental cost of capital required to fund a project, a simple discount rate may not adequately represent the situation.
- Adjustments to take account of risks will only be very rough estimate estimates.
- NPV analysis only considers the circumstances of a specific investment.
 Find out more
 Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki
- Base year.
- Business plan.
- Capital allowances.
- Capital costs for construction projects.
- Cash flow.
- Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR).
- Cost performance index (CPI).
- Cost-benefit analysis in construction.
- Development appraisal.
- Discount rate.
- Discounted cash flow.
- Gross value added (GVA).
- Internal rate of return for property development.
- Net benefits.
- Net savings.
- Life cycle assessment.
- Life Cycle Costing BG67 2016.
- Time value of money.
- Whole life costs.
 External references
Featured articles and news
Have the pressures of the market shredded the core values of professionalism?
Lead times are a measure of the amount of time that elapses between initiating and completing a construction process.
Government releases first tranche of funding for removal of unsafe high-rise cladding.
How to ensure UK transport infrastructure copes with severe winter weather.
Location shortlist for controversial new footbridge revealed.
Under the Party Wall Act a property owner has the legal right to do works that might otherwise constitute trespass or nuisance.
BSRIA examine the 'unpredictable' 2018 global air conditioning market.
ICE publish new report calling for new sector-wide body to help avert structural failures.
The rainbow JCB will be making a welcome return to the London Build Expo on 23 and 24 October at Olympia.
An introductory article to external works - all activities carried out to the external environment of a building project.